Department of African, African-American, and Diaspora Studies (GRAD)

(The Department of African, African American, and Diaspora Studies recently received final University approval to offer M.A. and Ph.D. degrees in Africana Studies, as well as a graduate minor in this field. The department plans to complete curriculum development within the next year and to begin admitting applicants shortly thereafter.)
 

The department’s geographical breadth covers Africa, North America, South America, and the Caribbean, and the disciplinary diversity of our faculty encompasses history, anthropology, political science, literature, ethnomusicology, performance and dance, and other fields. These specializations inform the tracks and concentrations of our new graduate program. Additionally, the department has a long-standing and highly regarded language program that currently offers elementary, intermediate, and advanced language instruction in Swahili and Wolof. We began sponsoring our first course in Yoruba in spring 2022. 

Our approach to graduate training bridges historical separations between African Studies and African American/Diaspora Studies and unites those fields within intellectual and methodological frameworks that focus on the experience and the agency of peoples of African descent in the modern world from a historical, cultural, and comparative perspective in general, and with respect to the impact of globalization on Africa and the African diaspora in particular. As such, we also aim to address major gaps in current studies of the global experiences of people of African descent.  

Upon entry into the M.A. or Ph.D. program, students will be initially admitted into one of the following major geographic fields: (1) Africa, (2) African America, or (3) African Diaspora (non-North America).  For the purpose of deepening the major geographic field with multi-disciplinary and content-specific study, students—in consultation with their primary advisor and by the end of their third semester of enrollment—will also declare two major thematic concentrations within the major geographic field.  The options include: (1) Literary Studies and Cultural Production; (2) Gender, Sexuality, and Feminism; (3) Development, Public Policy, and Social Change; and (4) Histories and Africana Critical Theory.  Further, by the end of the third semester of enrollment, each student will select a minor geographic field to complement their major geographic field.  Students may take any configuration of courses in the minor geographic field to fulfill degree requirements and are not required to declare a thematic concentration in the minor geographic field.  The selection of the two major thematic concentrations within the major geographic field and the choice of minor geographic field should be informed by coursework taken in these areas.   

Professors

Claude A. Clegg III
Kenneth Janken
Georges Nzongola-Ntalaja

Associate Professors

Lydia Boyd
Brandi Brimmer
Michael Lambert
David Pier
Charlene Regester
Eunice Sahle

Assistant Professors

Maya Berry
Shakirah Hudani
Petal Samuel
Ronald Williams II

Teaching Associate Professors

Mohamed Mwamzandi

Teaching Assistant Professors

Raphael Birya
Samba Camara
Alicia Monroe
Robert Porter

Adjunct Faculty

Sudhanshu Handa, Eminent Professor, Public Policy
Joseph Jordan, Director, Sonja Haynes Stone Center for Black Culture and History
Priscilla Layne, Associate Professor, Germanic and Slavic Languages
Victoria Rovine, Professor, Art
J. Michael Terry, Associate Professor, Linguistics

Courses

AAAD-Africa, African American, and Diaspora Studies

The department has adopted the following numbering system for all AAAD courses numbered above 99:

  • Courses ending in 00 to 29: African studies
  • Courses ending in 30 to 59: African American studies
  • Courses ending in 60 to 84: African Diaspora outside the United States
  • Courses ending in 85 to 99: Courses that cross geography; dedicated courses whose numbers are reserved by the University Registrar, such as independent studies and internships.

Advanced Undergraduate and Graduate-level Courses

AAAD 400.  Contemporary African Politics.  3 Credits.  

This upper level seminar examines contemporary African politics with a focus on political trends in the post-1990s period.

Rules & Requirements  
Making Connections Gen Ed: GL.  
Grading Status: Letter grade.  
AAAD 401.  Poverty, Health, and Human Development in Low Income Countries.  3 Credits.  

This course provides an understanding of how poverty is defined, the consequences of poverty, and policies to reduce poverty. It explores the determinants of human development outcomes from an interdisciplinary perspective (with a heavy economics focus).

Rules & Requirements  
Making Connections Gen Ed: SS.  
Requisites: Prerequisite, ECON 101.  
Grading Status: Letter grade.  
Same as: PLCY 485.  
AAAD 402.  African Media and Film: History and Practice.  3 Credits.  

This course explores forms of filmic and photographic representation of and by Africans. An introduction to key concepts in social theory and their application to the field of media studies and ethnography is a primary focus.

Rules & Requirements  
Making Connections Gen Ed: HS, EE- Field Work.  
Grading Status: Letter grade.  
IDEAs in Action General Education logoAAAD 403.  Human Rights: Theories and Practices in Africa.  3 Credits.  

This course explores major conceptual debates in the field of human rights. Further, it examines human rights practices and struggles in selected countries in Africa.

Rules & Requirements  
IDEAs in Action General Education logo IDEAs in Action Gen Ed: FC-GLOBAL.
Making Connections Gen Ed: SS.  
Grading Status: Letter grade.  
AAAD 404.  Music of African Diasporas.  3 Credits.  

An exploration of musical articulations of African diasporic identity focusing on aesthetics, social fields of production, and the historical development of the diaspora concept around music.

Rules & Requirements  
Making Connections Gen Ed: BN.  
Grading Status: Letter grade.  
IDEAs in Action General Education logoAAAD 405.  Contemporary African Art.  3 Credits.  

Examines modern and contemporary African art (1940s to the present) for Africans on the continent and abroad. Examines tradition, cultural heritage, colonialism, postcolonialism, local versus global, nationalism, gender, identity, diaspora.

Rules & Requirements  
IDEAs in Action General Education logo IDEAs in Action Gen Ed: FC-AESTH.
Making Connections Gen Ed: BN, GL.  
Requisites: Prerequisite, AAAD 101 or ARTH 152 or 155; permission of the instructor for students lacking the prerequisite.  
Grading Status: Letter grade.  
Same as: ARTH 488.  
IDEAs in Action General Education logoAAAD 410.  Gender, Sexuality, and Development in Contemporary Africa.  3 Credits.  

This upper-level seminar focuses on debates in international development studies exploring theories and policies of development, particularly those pertaining to gender, sexuality, masculinities, and women's political agency in contemporary Africa.

Rules & Requirements  
IDEAs in Action General Education logo IDEAs in Action Gen Ed: FC-GLOBAL or FC-POWER.
Making Connections Gen Ed: BN, GL.  
Grading Status: Letter grade.  
AAAD 414.  Senegalese Society and Culture.  3 Credits.  

This course provides an overview of Senegalese culture through movies, literary works, and scholarly books and articles. The course examines the geography, population, ethnic composition, thoughts and religious beliefs, arts and music, polygamy, status of women, and the impact of the tariqas or Sufi orders on people's daily lives.

Rules & Requirements  
Grading Status: Letter grade.  
AAAD 419.  African Studies Colloquium.  3 Credits.  

This course will equip students to analyze critically cutting-edge issues concerning Africa today through readings, lectures, and research. For junior/senior majors and students with an interest in Africa.

Rules & Requirements  
Grading Status: Letter grade.  
IDEAs in Action General Education logoAAAD 421.  Introduction to the Languages of Africa.  3 Credits.  

This course is an introduction to the languages of Africa. No linguistics background is required. Topics include classification, characteristic linguistic features of African languages, and their role in their respective societies.

Rules & Requirements  
IDEAs in Action General Education logo IDEAs in Action Gen Ed: FC-GLOBAL or FC-KNOWING.
Making Connections Gen Ed: BN.  
Grading Status: Letter grade.  
IDEAs in Action General Education logoAAAD 430.  African American Intellectual History.  3 Credits.  

An examination of major intellectual trends in African American life from the 19th to the early 21st century.

Rules & Requirements  
IDEAs in Action General Education logo IDEAs in Action Gen Ed: FC-KNOWING or FC-PAST.
Making Connections Gen Ed: HS.  
Grading Status: Letter grade.  
AAAD 444.  Race, Ethnicity, and Blackness in Comparative Perspective.  3 Credits.  

This course will provide students the opportunity to compare and contrast how race, especially Blackness, and ethnicity are constructed across the globe as well as how race, politics, and policy interact in various countries. We will examine the phenomena of race and ethnicity in the political development of several countries including the U.S., South Africa, France, Australia, Brazil, and several others.

Rules & Requirements  
Making Connections Gen Ed: BN.  
Grading Status: Letter grade.  
AAAD 449.  Black Women in Cinema: From the Early 1900s to the Present.  3 Credits.  

This course interrogates the diverse representations that black women personified on screen, investigates intersections between their off-screen lives and on-screen images, and explores what and how they contributed to the cinema industry. This course is a theoretical, critical, and historical examination of the black woman's cinematic experience.

Rules & Requirements  
Making Connections Gen Ed: VP, US.  
Grading Status: Letter grade.  
AAAD 451.  Orality, Literacy, and Cultural Production: African Americans and Racial Modernity.  3 Credits.  

Examines the divide between literacy- and orality-based modes of self-expression and cultural production, and the effects of this fault line on the African American struggle for inclusion and self-definition in the United States.

Rules & Requirements  
Grading Status: Letter grade.  
IDEAs in Action General Education logoAAAD 460.  Race, Culture, and Politics in Brazil.  3 Credits.  

Examines race, culture, and politics in Brazil from historical and contemporary perspectives. Focuses on dynamics of race, gender, class, and nation in shaping Brazilian social relations.

Rules & Requirements  
IDEAs in Action General Education logo IDEAs in Action Gen Ed: FC-POWER, RESEARCH.
Making Connections Gen Ed: SS, GL.  
Grading Status: Letter grade.  
IDEAs in Action General Education logoAAAD 461.  Race, Gender, and Activism in Cuba.  3 Credits.  

The course is designed to give students a simulated experience of ethnographic fieldwork and qualitative research. Students are led through a learning experience where they will examine black activism in Cuba from historical and contemporary perspectives.

Rules & Requirements  
IDEAs in Action General Education logo IDEAs in Action Gen Ed: FC-POWER or FC-VALUES.
Making Connections Gen Ed: SS, BN.  
Grading Status: Letter grade.  
IDEAs in Action General Education logoAAAD 466.  Race and Gender in the Atlantic World.  3 Credits.  

This course examines constructions of race and gender in a comparative framework from the fifteenth to the mid-nineteenth century. Students will explore how people across the Atlantic understood visual differences and human diversity in emerging concepts of race. Students will also focus on how inhabitants of Africa, Europe, North America, and South America constructed the category of "woman" and "man" and the constraints and liberties these constructions imposed.

Rules & Requirements  
IDEAs in Action General Education logo IDEAs in Action Gen Ed: FC-GLOBAL or FC-PAST.
Making Connections Gen Ed: BN, WB.  
Grading Status: Letter grade.  
IDEAs in Action General Education logoAAAD 480.  Vernacular Traditions in African American Music.  4 Credits.  

Explores performance traditions in African American music, tracing development from African song through reels, blues, gospel, and contemporary vernacular expression. Focuses on continuity, creativity, and change within African American aesthetics. Previously offered as FOLK 610/AAAD 432.

Rules & Requirements  
IDEAs in Action General Education logo IDEAs in Action Gen Ed: FC-AESTH or FC-POWER.
Making Connections Gen Ed: HS, EE- Field Work, US.  
Grading Status: Letter grade.  
Same as: FOLK 480.  
IDEAs in Action General Education logoAAAD 485.  Transnational Black Feminist Thought and Practice.  3 Credits.  

This course uses social science approaches to explore the development of black feminist thought and activism in diverse cultural and national contexts. Students will gain knowledge of black feminist thought writing and activism in Europe, Latin America, the Caribbean, and the United States.

Rules & Requirements  
IDEAs in Action General Education logo IDEAs in Action Gen Ed: FC-POWER, RESEARCH.
Making Connections Gen Ed: SS, GL.  
Grading Status: Letter grade.  
AAAD 486.  Africa in the American Imagination.  3 Credits.  

Examines the ways African art appears in United States popular culture (advertisements, magazines, toys, films, art) to generate meanings about Africa. Addresses intersecting issues of nationalism, multiculturalism, imperialism, nostalgia, race. Restricted to sophomores, juniors, and seniors. Honors version available.

Rules & Requirements  
Making Connections Gen Ed: VP, CI, NA.  
Grading Status: Letter grade.  
Same as: ARTH 453.  
IDEAs in Action General Education logoAAAD 487.  Intellectual Currents in African and African Diaspora Studies.  3 Credits.  

In this seminar students will examine primary documents of engaged scholarship written by Africans and people of African descent in the Americas, Europe, and elsewhere in the African Diaspora.

Rules & Requirements  
IDEAs in Action General Education logo IDEAs in Action Gen Ed: FC-GLOBAL or FC-POWER.
Requisites: Prerequisites, AAAD 101 and 130; permission of the instructor for students lacking the prerequisites.  
Grading Status: Letter grade.  
IDEAs in Action General Education logoAAAD 488.  Human Rights and Democracy in African Diaspora Communities.  3 Credits.  

This course examines how questions of democracy and human rights have been conceptualized in African Diaspora communities in the Americas and Europe.

Rules & Requirements  
IDEAs in Action General Education logo IDEAs in Action Gen Ed: FC-GLOBAL or FC-POWER.
Making Connections Gen Ed: SS, GL.  
Grading Status: Letter grade.  
AAAD 490.  Colloquium in African, African American, and Diaspora Studies.  3 Credits.  

This course is designed to give students a broad-ranging, interpretative perspective on-and analytical tools for studying-the migration and settlement of African peoples in various parts of the world, largely over the past several centuries. Based on selected secondary readings, students will study and compare the ways in which people of African descent have created political, cultural, and territorial communities in Africa and beyond the continent, especially in the slave and post-emancipation societies of the Americas.

Rules & Requirements  
Grading Status: Letter grade.  
IDEAs in Action General Education logoAAAD 491.  Class, Race, and Inequality in America.  3 Credits.  

Examines the origins of race in America, the relationship of racial oppression to class struggle at key points in American history, the proliferation of versions of the concept of privilege, and approaches to eliminating class and racial privilege.

Rules & Requirements  
IDEAs in Action General Education logo IDEAs in Action Gen Ed: FC-PAST or FC-POWER.
Making Connections Gen Ed: SS, US.  
Grading Status: Letter grade.  
IDEAs in Action General Education logoAAAD 492.  Urbanism in the Global South.  3 Credits.  

This course introduces concepts and themes on the development of urbanism in the "Global South". Students engage with current debates over urbanism in the Global South, including looking at urban inequalities in contemporary cities. Through the course, students will be able to compare and critically analyze formations of contemporary urbanism in selected cities in the Global South from a comparative perspective.

Rules & Requirements  
IDEAs in Action General Education logo IDEAs in Action Gen Ed: FC-GLOBAL.
Grading Status: Letter grade.  
Same as: PLAN 576.  
IDEAs in Action General Education logoAAAD 691H.  Honors Research I.  3 Credits.  

Permission of the department. Beginning of mentored research on an honors thesis. Required of all candidates for graduation with honors in African, African American, and Diaspora studies.

Rules & Requirements  
IDEAs in Action General Education logo IDEAs in Action Gen Ed: RESEARCH.
Making Connections Gen Ed: EE- Mentored Research.  
Grading Status: Letter grade.  
IDEAs in Action General Education logoAAAD 692H.  Honors Research II.  3 Credits.  

Permission of the department. Completion of an honors thesis under the direction of a member of the faculty. Required of all candidates for graduation with honors in African, African American, and Diaspora studies.

Rules & Requirements  
IDEAs in Action General Education logo IDEAs in Action Gen Ed: RESEARCH.
Making Connections Gen Ed: EE- Mentored Research.  
Grading Status: Letter grade.  

CHWA-Chichewa

Advanced Undergraduate and Graduate-level Courses 

CHWA 401.  Elementary Chichewa I.  3 Credits.  

The course introduces the essential elements of the Chichewa language. Emphasis is on speaking and writing grammatically acceptable Chichewa and on aspects of central African culture.

Rules & Requirements  
Making Connections Gen Ed: FL.  
Grading Status: Letter grade.  
Global Language: Level 1.  
CHWA 402.  Elementary Chichewa II.  3 Credits.  

Emphasis is on speaking and writing grammatically acceptable Chichewa to a proficiency level that will enable the student to live among the Chichewa-speaking people of central southern Africa.

Rules & Requirements  
Making Connections Gen Ed: FL.  
Requisites: Prerequisite, CHWA 401.  
Grading Status: Letter grade.  
Global Language: Level 2.  
IDEAs in Action General Education logoCHWA 403.  Intermediate Chichewa I.  3 Credits.  

Continued instruction in Chichewa following the materials introduced in CHWA 401 and 402.

Rules & Requirements  
IDEAs in Action General Education logo IDEAs in Action Gen Ed: GLBL-LANG.
Making Connections Gen Ed: FL.  
Requisites: Prerequisite, CHWA 402.  
Grading Status: Letter grade.  
Global Language: Level 3.  

LGLA-Lingala

Advanced Undergraduate and Graduate-level Courses

LGLA 401.  Elementary Lingala I.  3 Credits.  

Introduces the essential elements of Lingala structure and vocabulary and aspects of African cultures. Aural comprehension, reading, speaking, and writing are stressed.

Rules & Requirements  
Making Connections Gen Ed: FL.  
Grading Status: Letter grade.  
Global Language: Level 1.  
IDEAs in Action General Education logoLGLA 402.  Elementary Lingala II.  3 Credits.  

Continues the introduction of the essential elements of Lingala structure and vocabulary and aspects of African cultures. Aural comprehension, reading, speaking, and writing are stressed.

Rules & Requirements  
IDEAs in Action General Education logo IDEAs in Action Gen Ed: FC-GLOBAL.
Making Connections Gen Ed: FL.  
Requisites: Prerequisite, LGLA 401.  
Grading Status: Letter grade.  
Global Language: Level 2.  
IDEAs in Action General Education logoLGLA 403.  Intermediate Lingala III.  3 Credits.  

This courses increases language learning ability, communicative proficiency, and proficiency in the cultures of the Lingala-speaking people.

Rules & Requirements  
IDEAs in Action General Education logo IDEAs in Action Gen Ed: GLBL-LANG.
Making Connections Gen Ed: FL.  
Grading Status: Letter grade.  
Global Language: Level 3.  
LGLA 404.  Intermediate Lingala IV.  3 Credits.  

This course reinforces language learning ability, communicative proficiency in the culture of the Lingala-speaking people through gradual exposure to more challenging tasks, with emphasis on poetry and prose reading, and creative writing.

Rules & Requirements  
Making Connections Gen Ed: FL.  
Grading Status: Letter grade.  

SWAH-Kiswahili

Advanced Undergraduate and Graduate-level Courses

SWAH 401.  Elementary Kiswahili I.  3 Credits.  

This course is the first part of Elementary Swahili. Students will be introduced to the basic elements of Standard Swahili language and culture. At the end of this course, students are expected to reach Novice High according to the American Council on the Teaching of Foreign Languages (ACTFL) proficiency guidelines. In addition to Swahili language, students are exposed to topics on socioeconomic issues in East Africa, for example, greetings and social norms, nutrition and housing.

Rules & Requirements  
Making Connections Gen Ed: FL.  
Grading Status: Letter grade.  
Global Language: Level 1.  
SWAH 402.  Elementary Kiswahili II.  3 Credits.  

This course is a continuation of Elementary Swahili I. It introduces more advanced grammar, emphasizes more fluency in speaking, reading, and writing in standard Swahili. The course develops students understanding of the Swahili culture and the East African people who use Swahili as the language of wider communication. Students develop an understanding and appreciation of languages and cultures other than their own.

Rules & Requirements  
Making Connections Gen Ed: FL.  
Requisites: Prerequisite, SWAH 401.  
Grading Status: Letter grade.  
Global Language: Level 2.  
IDEAs in Action General Education logoSWAH 403.  Intermediate Kiswahili III.  3 Credits.  

This course is the first part of Intermediate Swahili. Students taking this course are assumed to have taken Swahili Elementary I & II where basic elements of Standard Swahili language and culture are introduced. The course is designed to further help students improve their fluency with emphasis on reading, writing, speaking and listening. Further, students make some comparisons between their cultures and the culture of Swahili speaking people and the East African people in general.

Rules & Requirements  
IDEAs in Action General Education logo IDEAs in Action Gen Ed: GLBL-LANG.
Making Connections Gen Ed: FL.  
Requisites: Prerequisite, SWAH 112 or 402.  
Grading Status: Letter grade.  
Global Language: Level 3.  
IDEAs in Action General Education logoSWAH 404.  Intermediate Kiswahili IV.  3 Credits.  

SWAH 404 is designed to further help students improve their fluency with particular emphasis on reading, writing, speaking, and listening. At this level students discuss varied issues in East Africa including state and local government political and economic activities, kinship ties, transportation, and Swahili oral and written literature. Students are encouraged to use the knowledge acquired in their respective areas of specializations and personal experiences to make connections and comparisons.

Rules & Requirements  
IDEAs in Action General Education logo IDEAs in Action Gen Ed: FC-GLOBAL.
Making Connections Gen Ed: FL.  
Requisites: Prerequisite, SWAH 403.  
Grading Status: Letter grade.  
Global Language: Level 4.  
IDEAs in Action General Education logoSWAH 405.  Advanced Kiswahili V.  3 Credits.  

Advanced Swahili aims at developing fluency and proficiency in Swahili language and students' understanding of the social, economic, and political situation and activities of the East African people. Further, the course is designed to develop the students' ability to describe events, express opinions, and compare what they learn in class with personal experience and knowledge in their respective fields of specialization using structured arguments.

Rules & Requirements  
IDEAs in Action General Education logo IDEAs in Action Gen Ed: FC-GLOBAL, COMMBEYOND.
Requisites: Prerequisite, SWAH 404.  
Grading Status: Letter grade.  
Global Language: Level 5.  
IDEAs in Action General Education logoSWAH 406.  Advanced Plus Kiswahili VI.  3 Credits.  

This course reinforces and expands the grammatical, cultural, and communicative competence achieved in SWAH 405.

Rules & Requirements  
IDEAs in Action General Education logo IDEAs in Action Gen Ed: FC-GLOBAL, COMMBEYOND.
Requisites: Prerequisite, SWAH 405 or permission of the instructor for students lacking the prerequisite.  
Grading Status: Letter grade.  
Global Language: Level 6.  
SWAH 408.  Swahili Across the Curriculum Recitation.  1 Credits.  

SWAH 408 explores contemporary health issues and other current affairs in Africa. The course is designed to help students understand the basic health issues in Africa as well as develop their language skills in reading, listening, comprehension and writing of Swahili language. Further, students will examine how language and culture impact beliefs and behaviors, and how together, these impact health interventions.

Rules & Requirements  
Requisites: Prerequisite, SWAH 403 or permission of the instructor for students lacking the prerequisite.  
Repeat Rules: May be repeated for credit; may be repeated in the same term for different topics; 8 total credits. 8 total completions.  
Grading Status: Letter grade.  

WOLO-Wolof

Advanced Undergraduate and Graduate-level Courses

WOLO 401.  Elementary Wolof I.  3 Credits.  

WOLO 401 (Elementary Wolof I) is appropriate for beginners with no background in the language.

Rules & Requirements  
Making Connections Gen Ed: FL.  
Grading Status: Letter grade.  
Global Language: Level 1.  
WOLO 402.  Elementary Wolof II.  3 Credits.  

WOLO 402 (Elementary Wolof 2) is appropriate for learners who have completed (or placed successfully out of) WOLO 401.

Rules & Requirements  
Making Connections Gen Ed: FL.  
Requisites: Prerequisite, WOLO 401.  
Grading Status: Letter grade.  
Global Language: Level 2.  
IDEAs in Action General Education logoWOLO 403.  Intermediate Wolof III.  3 Credits.  

WOL 403 is appropriate for learners who have completed (or successfully placed out of) Elementary Wolof 2.

Rules & Requirements  
IDEAs in Action General Education logo IDEAs in Action Gen Ed: GLBL-LANG.
Making Connections Gen Ed: FL.  
Requisites: Prerequisite, WOLO 402.  
Grading Status: Letter grade.  
Global Language: Level 3.  
WOLO 404.  Intermediate Wolof IV.  3 Credits.  

WOL 404 is appropriate for learners who have completed Intermediate Wolof 1.

Rules & Requirements  
Making Connections Gen Ed: FL.  
Requisites: Prerequisite, WOLO 403.  
Grading Status: Letter grade.  
Global Language: Level 4.  
WOLO 405.  Advanced Wolof V.  3 Credits.  

This course is intended for learners who have acquired Wolof proficiency in WOLO 403 and 404. It provides students with the communication and linguistic skills needed to communicate fluently at the near-native level.

Rules & Requirements  
Requisites: Prerequisite, WOLO 404.  
Grading Status: Letter grade.  
WOLO 406.  Advanced Wolof VI.  3 Credits.  

This course is intended for learners who have acquired Wolof proficiency in WOLO 405. It provides students with the advanced communication and linguistic skills needed to communicate fluently at the native level.

Rules & Requirements  
Requisites: Prerequisite, WOLO 405.  
Grading Status: Letter grade.