Department of Philosophy

Department of Philosophy

http://philosophy.unc.edu

Caldwell Hall, 240 East Cameron, CB# 3125

(919) 962-7291

Marc Lange, Chair

Mariska Leunissen, Director of Undergraduate Studies

mariska@email.unc.edu

Introduction

The principal goal of the study of philosophy is to enable students to think more clearly, deeply, and appreciatively about themselves and their world. Study of philosophy enhances analytical, critical, and interpretive capacities that are applicable to any subject matter in almost any context. It provides many opportunities for expressing oneself, for reflecting on questions that human beings have pondered for millennia, for exchanging reasoned beliefs and engaging in focused debate, and for learning how to come to terms with problems for which there are no easy answers. A good philosophical education also helps to prepare students for responsible and intelligent participation in political and community affairs.

The most important outcome of philosophical study is the ability to engage in thinking that is at once disciplined and imaginatively creative. While such thinking lies at the heart of the philosophical enterprise, it is also needed for success in any complex intellectual or practical endeavor. Philosophy’s attention to critical thought, rigorous argument, and articulate expression makes the philosophical curriculum absolutely central to a liberal education and valuable as a basis for further training in a variety of pursuits.

Examples of philosophical questions are

  • How should we understand truth, existence, validity, fact, value, free will?
  • What are the principles or presuppositions of science, language, political systems, religious and moral views?
  • What is the nature of a person, of space and time, of a work of art?
  • What is the wisdom of the past on these enduring questions? How can we learn from people such as Plato, Aristotle, Descartes, and Kant?

Students are encouraged to view philosophy not as a specialized, esoteric discipline, but instead as an activity integral to a liberal arts education, helping students to think more cogently and appreciatively about themselves and their world.

PHIL 101, PHIL 110, or PHIL 112 is recommended as a first course for those interested in philosophical issues and their cultural significance and for those who wish to examine a broad range of philosophical topics, problems, or historical figures. Other good starting points are PHIL 155, which deals with logic and the analysis of argument; PHIL 160, which deals with moral thought and experience; and PHIL 150, which deals with the concepts, methods, and foundations of the biological and physical sciences.

PHIL 155 is recommended for all students who major or minor in philosophy.

Advising

All majors and minors have a primary academic advisor in Steele Building. Students are strongly encouraged to meet regularly with their advisor and review their Tar Heel Tracker each semester. The department’s director of undergraduate studies works with current and prospective majors by appointment (see contact information above). Departmental academic advising is particularly important for those majors who are considering going on to graduate school. Further information on courses, undergraduate research opportunities, the honors program, careers, and graduate schools may be obtained from the department’s Web site.

Graduate School and Career Opportunities

A major in philosophy offers excellent preparation for many careers in which clear thinking and analytical ability are valued. Some majors choose to pursue graduate work in philosophy in preparation for college or university teaching (Ph.D. normally required), but the philosophy major also provides the form of rigorous and systematic intellectual training that is of crucial importance in law, medicine, business, and other fields.

Distinguished Professors

Marc Lange, L.A. Paul, Gerald J. Postema, C.D.C. Reeve, Geoffrey Sayre-McCord, Susan Wolf.

Distinguished Research Professors

Simon Blackburn, Geoffrey Brennan.

Professors

Luc Bovens, Thomas Hofweber, Douglas MacLean, Alan Nelson, Ram Neta, John T. Roberts, Gillian Russell.

Distinguished Associate Professor

Matthew Kotzen.

Associate Professor

Mariska Leunissen.

Assistant Professors

Markus Kohl, Carla Merino-Rajme, Alexander Worsnip.

Adjunct Professors

James Lesher, Rebecca Walker.

Research Assistant Professors

Jonathan Anomaly, Yoaav Isaacs, Jeffrey Sebo.

Lecturer

Steven Swartzer.

Visiting Lecturers

Dana Falkenberg, Dean Pettit, Wesley Sauret.

Professors Emeriti

Bernard Boxill, Edward M. Galligan, Thomas E. Hill Jr., Douglas C. Long, William G. Lycan, Stanley Munsat, Michael D. Resnik, Robert D. Vance.

PHIL–Philosophy

Courses numbered below 199 have no prerequisites. These serve as suitable first courses in philosophy for many students, as do some courses below 299, in particular PHIL 230, PHIL 266, and PHIL 280. Courses numbered 101 to 120 are general survey courses. Courses numbered 130 to 290 are oriented toward particular problems or topics. Courses numbered 210 to 229 concern the history of philosophy. Courses numbered 300 to 399 are designed for advanced undergraduates and majors and carry a prerequisite of one course in philosophy. (Some may carry additional prerequisites.) Courses between 400 and 699 are for advanced undergraduates as well as graduate students. Detailed information on upcoming courses is available on the department’s Web site.

Please note that not all courses are offered on a regular basis. For information on which courses are most likely to be offered in a given year or semester, please contact the department’s director of undergraduate studies.

Undergraduate-level Courses

PHIL 51. First-Year Seminar: Who Was Socrates?. 3 Credits.

Socrates is the quintessential philosopher--a man for all seasons, a foundational figure of the West.
Gen Ed: PH, NA, WB.
Grading status: Letter grade.

PHIL 52. First-Year Seminar: Reason and Religion at the Dawn of Modern Science. 3 Credits.

Students will read some of the most important philosophical reflections of the 17th and 18th centuries.
Gen Ed: PH.
Grading status: Letter grade.

PHIL 53. First-Year Seminar: Theories in Human Nature. 3 Credits.

Students will explore a variety of issues that arise when human beings begin to reflect on our own natures and will be introduced to main theories that have been developed. Honors version available
Gen Ed: PH.
Grading status: Letter grade.

PHIL 54. First-Year Seminar: Thinking about Time. 3 Credits.

What is time? Do the past and the future exist, or only the present? Is the "flow of time" an objective feature of reality?
Gen Ed: PH, WB.
Grading status: Letter grade.

PHIL 55. First-Year Seminar: Paradoxes. 3 Credits.

Paradoxes have been a driving force in philosophy since the fourth century BCE. They force us to rethink old ideas and conceptions.
Gen Ed: PH, CI.
Grading status: Letter grade.

PHIL 56. First-Year Seminar: Abortion. 3 Credits.

A general philosophical discussion of the value of life, the evil in death, and the wrongness of killing.
Gen Ed: PH.
Grading status: Letter grade.

PHIL 57. First-Year Seminar: Race and Affirmative Action. 3 Credits.

The goal of the course is to get a mature and correct understanding of race, racism, and affirmative action.
Gen Ed: US.
Grading status: Letter grade.

PHIL 58. First-Year Seminar: From Vengeance to Mercy: Dealing with Evil. 3 Credits.

This course will explore the ethical dimensions of the responses to evil that we have developed over history. Revenge, retribution, reparation; hatred, resentment, forgiveness; punishment, pardon, mercy.
Gen Ed: PH.
Grading status: Letter grade.

PHIL 59. First-Year Seminar: Proofs of the Existence of God. 3 Credits.

We will examine efforts in the history of philosophy to prove that God exists or that God does not exist. Our aim is to articulate and understand some of the underlying philosophical issues that are raised by these proofs and arguments.
Gen Ed: PH.
Grading status: Letter grade.

PHIL 63. First-Year Seminar: Mind, Brain, and Consciousness. 3 Credits.

What are minds and how are they related to bodies?
Gen Ed: SS.
Grading status: Letter grade.

PHIL 65. First-Year Seminar: Philosophy through Mathematics. 3 Credits.

This seminar introduces several of the central problems in philosophy through reflection on the nature of mathematics.
Gen Ed: QI.
Grading status: Letter grade.

PHIL 66. First-Year Seminar: Ethics: Theoretical and Practical. 3 Credits.

This seminar examines theoretical issues, relativism, utilitarianism, deontological ethics, and virtue ethics.
Gen Ed: PH.
Grading status: Letter grade.

PHIL 67. First-Year Seminar: Issues in a World Society: Sports and Competition. 3 Credits.

This seminar examines ethical issues in sports, including Title IX, gender equity, racism, sexism, cheating, violence, and drug use.
Gen Ed: PH.
Grading status: Letter grade.

PHIL 68. First-Year Seminar: Moral Life. 3 Credits.

This course will explore the meaning of basic moral concepts as they are understood in philosophy, science, and art. Honors version available
Gen Ed: PH.
Grading status: Letter grade.

PHIL 75. First-Year Seminar: Evil. 3 Credits.

What is evil? Who, if anyone, is responsible for it? How different are evil people from the rest of us? How should we respond to them? The course will explore the nature of evil through philosophy, nonfiction, fiction, and film.
Gen Ed: PH.
Grading status: Letter grade.

PHIL 76. First-Year Seminar: Is Free Will an Illusion?. 3 Credits.

This course will examine whether our belief in freedom of action is compatible with the modern picture of ourselves. Honors version available
Gen Ed: PH.
Grading status: Letter grade.

PHIL 77. First-Year Seminar: Moral Weakness and Conscience. 3 Credits.

Is man's reason a powerful thing: if one had knowledge or belief about something that should be done, would that be enough to position one to do it?
Gen Ed: PH.
Grading status: Letter grade.

PHIL 78. First-Year Seminar: Death as a Problem for Philosophy: Metaphysical and Ethical. 3 Credits.

This course explores both old and new questions regarding death. It will examine the presuppositions and cogency of the classical religious-philosophical conception of death.
Gen Ed: PH.
Grading status: Letter grade.

PHIL 79. First-Year Seminar: Words That Bind: The Structure of Constitutions. 3 Credits.

In this seminar we will examine a number of constitutions and try to determine what makes a constitution better or worse, and when it makes sense to borrow constitutional principles from other countries. We will also try our hand at designing a constitution.
Gen Ed: PH, CI.
Grading status: Letter grade.

PHIL 85. First-Year Seminar: Reason, Religion, and Reality in the Copernican Revolution. 3 Credits.

The arguments by which Galileo and his contemporaries defended the Copernican model of the solar system puzzle philosophers even today. Honors version available
Gen Ed: PH.
Grading status: Letter grade.

PHIL 89. First Year Seminar: Special Topics. 3 Credits.

Special Topics Course. Content will vary each semester.
Repeat rules: May be repeated for credit; may be repeated in the same term for different topics; 6 total credits. 2 total completions.
Grading status: Letter grade.

PHIL 101. Introduction to Philosophy: Main Problems. 3 Credits.

An introduction to philosophy focusing on a few central problems, for example: free will, the basis of morality, the nature and limits of knowledge, and the existence of God. Honors version available
Gen Ed: PH.
Grading status: Letter grade.

PHIL 105. Critical Thinking. 3 Credits.

A course on how to identify, analyze, and evaluate arguments by other people and how to construct arguments. Topics include argument reconstruction, informal logic, fallacies, introductory formal logic, probabilistic reasoning.
Gen Ed: PH.
Grading status: Letter grade.

PHIL 110. Introduction to Philosophy: Great Works. 3 Credits.

An introduction to philosophy focusing on several great books from the history of Western philosophy. See course description at the department's website for which books will be covered each semester. Honors version available
Gen Ed: PH.
Grading status: Letter grade.

PHIL 112. Making Sense of Ourselves. 3 Credits.

An examination of some of the most influential attempts to understand human beings, their lives, and their moral and political values. Authors may include Plato, Aristotle, and Nietzsche. Honors version available
Gen Ed: PH.
Grading status: Letter grade.

PHIL 134. Philosophy of Western Religion. 3 Credits.

A philosophical inquiry into the problems of religious experience and belief, as expressed in philosophic, religious, and literary documents from traditional and contemporary sources. Honors version available
Gen Ed: PH, NA.
Grading status: Letter grade
Same as: RELI 126.

PHIL 140. Knowledge and Society. 3 Credits.

An examination of questions about knowledge, evidence, and rational belief as they arise in areas of social life such as democratic politics, the law, science, religion, and education. Honors version available
Gen Ed: PH.
Grading status: Letter grade.

PHIL 145. Language and Communication. 3 Credits.

An examination of the differences between natural human languages and other communication systems. Includes a philosophical inquiry into how languages relate to the world and the mind. Honors version available
Gen Ed: PH.
Grading status: Letter grade
Same as: LING 145.

PHIL 150. Philosophy of Science. 3 Credits.

What is distinctive about the kind of knowledge called "science"? What is scientific explanation? How are scientific theories related to empirical evidence? Honors version available
Gen Ed: PH.
Grading status: Letter grade.

PHIL 154. Philosophy of the Social Sciences. 3 Credits.

How do social sciences explain human actions? Are there social facts over and above facts about various individuals? Do values enter into social science?
Gen Ed: SS.
Grading status: Letter grade.

PHIL 155. Introduction to Mathematical Logic. 3 Credits.

Introduces the theory of deductive reasoning, using a symbolic language to represent and evaluate patterns of reasoning. Covers sentential logic and first-order predicate logic. Honors version available
Gen Ed: QR.
Grading status: Letter grade.

PHIL 157. Logic and Decision Theory. 3 Credits.

A broader discussion of practical reasoning, including inductive and deductive logic, which provides a good introduction to decision and game theory that is important for the social sciences, especially economics.
Gen Ed: QI.
Grading status: Letter grade.

PHIL 160. Introduction to Ethics. 3 Credits.

Exploration of different philosophical perspectives about right and wrong, personal character, justice, moral reasoning, and moral conflicts. Readings drawn from classic or contemporary sources. Critical discussion emphasized. Honors version available
Gen Ed: PH.
Grading status: Letter grade.

PHIL 163. Practical Ethics. 3 Credits.

Topics may include war, medical ethics, media ethics, sexual ethics, business ethics, racism, sexism, capital punishment, and the environment. Honors version available
Gen Ed: PH.
Grading status: Letter grade.

PHIL 164. Morality and Business. 3 Credits.

An examination of business ethics and the types of ethical dilemmas people may face in business practices.
Gen Ed: PH.
Grading status: Letter grade.

PHIL 165. Bioethics. 3 Credits.

An examination of ethical issues in the life sciences and technologies, medicine, public health, and/or human interaction with nonhuman animals or the living environment. Honors version available
Gen Ed: PH.
Grading status: Letter grade.

PHIL 170. Social Ethics and Political Thought. 3 Credits.

An examination of major issues in political philosophy, e.g., liberty, individual rights, social responsibility, legal authority, civil authority, civil disobedience. Readings include classical and contemporary writings. Honors version available
Gen Ed: PH.
Grading status: Letter grade.

PHIL 180. Philosophy of Comedy. 3 Credits.

A course on philosophical issues related to laughter and humor. Historical and contemporary philosophical theories of humor; connections between traditional issues in aesthetics and humor; moral questions about humor, such as what is involved in a joke being racist/sexist/homophobic; and connections between jokes and various epistemological fallacies.
Gen Ed: PH.
Grading status: Letter grade.

PHIL 185. Introduction to Aesthetics. 3 Credits.

The nature of art and artworks and their aesthetic appraisal. Honors version available
Gen Ed: PH.
Grading status: Letter grade.

PHIL 210. Ancient Greek Philosophy. 3 Credits.

The emergence of philosophy in Greece during the sixth century BCE and its development during the classical period. The major figures studied are the Pre-Socratic philosophers, Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle. Honors version available
Gen Ed: PH, WB.
Grading status: Letter grade.

PHIL 213. Asian Philosophy. 3 Credits.

An examination of some of the philosophical traditions of Asia. Possible topics include Advaita Vedanta, Nyaya-Vaisheshika, Madhyamaka Buddhism, neo-Confucianism, Mohism, and philosophical Taoism.
Gen Ed: PH, BN, WB.
Grading status: Letter grade.

PHIL 215. Medieval Philosophy. 3 Credits.

A survey of medieval philosophy from Augustine through Ockham. Topics: God and the world, faith and reason, knowledge and reality, the problem of universals. Additional main authors: Anselm, Aquinas, Duns Scotus.
Gen Ed: PH, NA, WB.
Grading status: Letter grade.

PHIL 220. 17th and 18th Century Western Philosophy. 3 Credits.

A study of some major philosophical works from this period, including works by authors such as Descartes, Spinoza, Locke, Berkeley, Leibniz, Hume, and/or Kant. Honors version available
Gen Ed: PH, NA, WB.
Repeat rules: May be repeated for credit. 6 total credits. 2 total completions.
Grading status: Letter grade.

PHIL 224. Existential Philosophy. 3 Credits.

A survey of European philosophers in the phenomenological and existentialist traditions. Philosophers studied may include Kierkegaard, Nietzsche, Husserl, Heidegger, Sartre, Camus. Honors version available
Gen Ed: PH, NA.
Grading status: Letter grade.

PHIL 228. American Philosophy. 3 Credits.

An exploration of the distinctively American approaches to philosophy from Jonathan Edwards to the present.
Gen Ed: NA.
Grading status: Letter grade.

PHIL 229. 20th-Century Western Philosophy. 3 Credits.

An introductory survey of British and Continental philosophy in the 20th century.
Gen Ed: NA.
Grading status: Letter grade.

PHIL 230. Experience and Reality. 3 Credits.

Topics in metaphysics and/or epistemology, such as: Is your mind different from your brain? Is it possible for us to know anything about the external world? Do we have free will? What distinguishes reasonable from unreasonable belief? Honors version available
Gen Ed: PH, NA.
Grading status: Letter grade.

PHIL 261. Ethics in Practice. 3 Credits.

Required preparation, one previous PHIL ethics course. Permission of the instructor. Ethics Bowl provides a unique experiential opportunity for students to apply theory to practical global issues. Students will prepare cases to present locally and at Ethics Bowl competition.
Gen Ed: PH, CI, EE-Mentored Research.
Repeat rules: May be repeated for credit. 12 total credits. 4 total completions.
Grading status: Letter grade.

PHIL 266. Ethics of Sports. 3 Credits.

An analysis of the moral significance of sports, the nature of sport and competition, and issues such as racism, gender equity, violence, and performance-enhancing drugs. Honors version available
Gen Ed: PH.
Grading status: Letter grade.

PHIL 272. The Ethics of Peace, War, and Defense. 3 Credits.

An analysis of ethical issues that arise in peace, war, and defense, e.g., the legitimacy of states, just war theory, terrorism, weapons of mass destruction.
Gen Ed: PH, GL, NA.
Grading status: Letter grade
Same as: POLI 272, PWAD 272.

PHIL 273. Philosophical Perspectives on Justice. 3 Credits.

This course will focus on justice and the common good, applying theoretical justifications to contemporary social and economic issues. Readings will include classical and contemporary literature on the nature of justice and rights.
Gen Ed: PH.
Grading status: Letter grade.

PHIL 274. African American Political Philosophy. 3 Credits.

Race, identity, discrimination, multiculturalism, affirmative action, and slave reparations in the writings of Walker, Delany, Douglass, Cooper, DuBois, King, and Malcolm X. Honors version available
Gen Ed: PH, US.
Grading status: Letter grade.

PHIL 275. Moral and Philosophical Issues of Gender in Society. 3 Credits.

A survey of feminist perspectives on topics such as the meaning of oppression, sexism and racism, sex roles and stereotypes, ideals of female beauty, women in the workplace, pornography, rape. Honors version available
Gen Ed: PH, US.
Grading status: Letter grade
Same as: WGST 275.

PHIL 280. Morality and Law. 3 Credits.

Explores issues in legal philosophy such as, What is law? Does it serve justice or undermine it? Can punishment be justified? When is a person responsible? Honors version available
Gen Ed: PH.
Grading status: Letter grade.

PHIL 282. Human Rights: Philosophical Interrogations. 3 Credits.

The philosophy of human rights addresses questions about the existence, content, nature, universality, justification, and legal status of human rights.The strong claims made on behalf of human rights frequently provoke skeptical doubts and countering philosophical defenses. These will be addressed through classical and contemporary history of philosophy.
Gen Ed: PH.
Grading status: Letter grade.

PHIL 285. Moral and Philosophical Issues in Education. 3 Credits.

A critical examination of the moral and philosophical issues in education: What does it mean to be well educated? What is a liberal education?
Gen Ed: PH, CI.
Repeat rules: May be repeated for credit. 6 total credits. 2 total completions.
Grading status: Letter grade.

PHIL 292. Introducing and Integrating Philosophy into Primary and Secondary Schools. 3 Credits.

Permission of the instructor. This course combines on-campus structured learning with substantial on-site field work incorporating philosophy into the primary and/or secondary school curriculum. Philosophy subjects and school partners will vary by semester.
Requisites: Prerequisite, two previous PHIL courses.
Gen Ed: EE-Mentored Research.
Repeat rules: May be repeated for credit. 9 total credits. 3 total completions.
Grading status: Letter grade.

PHIL 330. Metaphysics. 3 Credits.

An examination of general theories of the nature of reality. What kinds of things exist? What are space, time, and causation? Are abstract entities (such as numbers) real?
Requisites: Prerequisite, one previous PHIL course.
Gen Ed: PH.
Grading status: Letter grade.

PHIL 335. Theory of Knowledge. 3 Credits.

What is knowledge and how does it relate to belief, justification, and truth? What makes beliefs reasonable or irrational? Can skepticism be defeated?
Requisites: Prerequisite, one previous PHIL course.
Gen Ed: PH.
Grading status: Letter grade.

PHIL 340. Philosophy of Mind. 3 Credits.

The mind-body problem, the nature of thinking, the puzzles of consciousness, and the qualitative character of felt experience.
Requisites: Prerequisite, one previous PHIL course.
Gen Ed: PH.
Grading status: Letter grade.

PHIL 345. Reference and Meaning. 3 Credits.

Survey of major topics in contemporary philosophy of language. Topics may include truth and meaning, speech acts, reference, descriptions, names, and demonstratives.
Requisites: Prerequisite, one previous PHIL course.
Gen Ed: SS.
Grading status: Letter grade.

PHIL 351. Philosophy of Physics. 3 Credits.

Topics may include the nature of space and time, the ontological status of fields and energy, or causation and locality in quantum physics. Honors version available
Requisites: Prerequisite, one previous PHIL course.
Gen Ed: PH.
Grading status: Letter grade.

PHIL 352. Philosophy of Biology. 3 Credits.

Philosophical issues raised by biological theories, which may include the logical structure of evolutionary theory, fitness, taxonomy, the notion of a living thing, reductionism, evolutionary explanations, or teleology.
Requisites: Prerequisite, one previous PHIL course.
Gen Ed: PL.
Grading status: Letter grade.

PHIL 353. Philosophy of Cognitive Science. 3 Credits.

Philosophical questions raised by linguistics, computer science, cognitive psychology, and neuroscience. Topics may include the innateness of language, artificial intelligence, and the neural correlates of consciousness. Honors version available
Requisites: Prerequisite, one previous PHIL course.
Gen Ed: SS.
Grading status: Letter grade.

PHIL 354. Quantum Mechanics, Weirdness, and Reality. 3 Credits.

An interdisciplinary course on the weirdness of quantum mechanics and the problem of interpreting it. Nonlocality, the measurement problem, superpositions, Bohm's theory, collapse theories, and the many-worlds interpretation.
Requisites: Prerequisites, MATH 231 and any PHYS course numbered 100 or greater; permission of the instructor for students lacking the prerequisites.
Gen Ed: PH.
Grading status: Letter grade
Same as: PHYS 354.

PHIL 355. Intermediate Mathematical Logic. 3 Credits.

Quantificational logic with identity; basic meta-theory; modal logic.
Requisites: Prerequisite, PHIL 155.
Gen Ed: QI.
Grading status: Letter grade.

PHIL 357. Induction, Probability, and Confirmation. 3 Credits.

Current accounts of evidence and observation, the confirmation of scientific theories, the logic of inductive reasoning, and the metaphysics and epistemology of chance.
Requisites: Prerequisite, one previous PHIL course.
Gen Ed: QI.
Grading status: Letter grade.

PHIL 360. History of Ethics. 3 Credits.

PHIL 160 recommended. Major developments in the history of moral philosophy, from Plato to Nietzsche. Honors version available
Requisites: Prerequisite, one previous PHIL course.
Gen Ed: PH.
Grading status: Letter grade.

PHIL 362. Contemporary Ethical Theory. 3 Credits.

Using 20th- and 21st-century texts, this course explores some general questions about morality in depth. For example, Is there moral truth? Are any moral rules absolute? Why be moral? Honors version available
Requisites: Prerequisite, one previous PHIL course.
Gen Ed: PH.
Grading status: Letter grade.

PHIL 364. Ethics and Economics. 3 Credits.

Recommended preparation, at least one course in ethics (PHIL 160, 163, or 170) or one course in economics. Issues at the intersection of ethics and economics, including value; the relation between values and preferences; rationality; the relevance to economics of rights, justice, and the value of human life.
Gen Ed: PH.
Grading status: Letter grade
Same as: PLCY 364.

PHIL 368. Environmental Ethics. 3 Credits.

The meaning of environmental values and their relation to other values; the ethical status of animals, species, wilderness, and ecosystems; the built environment; environmental justice; ecofeminism; obligations to future generations.
Gen Ed: PH, GL.
Grading status: Letter grade
Same as: ENEC 368.

PHIL 370. Political Philosophy. 3 Credits.

Advanced discussion of competing philosophical approaches to questions of justice, authority, freedom, rights, and the like, including libertarianism, liberalism, communitarianism, Marxism, and feminism.
Requisites: Prerequisite, one previous PHIL course.
Gen Ed: PH, NA.
Grading status: Letter grade.

PHIL 381. Philosophy and Film. 3 Credits.

An examination of how philosophical issues are explored in the medium of film. Honors version available
Requisites: Prerequisite, one previous PHIL course.
Gen Ed: PH.
Grading status: Letter grade.

PHIL 384. Introduction to Philosophy, Politics, and Economics. 3 Credits.

One course in economics strongly recommended. This interdisciplinary gateway course provides an introduction to subjects and quantitative techniques used to analyze problems in philosophy, political science, and economics.
Gen Ed: PH.
Grading status: Letter grade
Same as: ECON 384, POLI 384.

PHIL 390. Seminar in Selected Topics. 3 Credits.

Intensive exploration and discussion of selected topics in philosophy. Honors version available
Requisites: Prerequisite, one previous PHIL course.
Repeat rules: May be repeated for credit; may be repeated in the same term for different topics; 9 total credits. 3 total completions.
Grading status: Letter grade.

PHIL 396. Directed Readings. 1-3 Credits.

Permission of the instructor. See the director of undergraduate studies of the department.
Requisites: Prerequisite, one previous PHIL course.
Repeat rules: May be repeated for credit; may be repeated in the same term for different topics; 9 total credits. 3 total completions.
Grading status: Letter grade.

PHIL 397. Colloquium for Philosophy Majors. 3 Credits.

Students will present papers on selected topics for critical discussion. Recommended for philosophy majors in their junior year.
Requisites: Prerequisite, one previous PHIL course.
Gen Ed: CI.
Repeat rules: May be repeated for credit. 9 total credits. 3 total completions.
Grading status: Letter grade.

Advanced Undergraduate and Graduate-level Courses

PHIL 411. Aristotle. 3 Credits.

An examination of some representative works of Aristotle, with reference to common emphases and basic problems, together with an analysis of their philosophic content.
Repeat rules: May be repeated for credit. 6 total credits. 2 total completions.
Grading status: Letter grade.

PHIL 412. Plato. 3 Credits.

An examination of some representative works in the context of contemporary scholarship.
Gen Ed: WB.
Repeat rules: May be repeated for credit. 6 total credits. 2 total completions.
Grading status: Letter grade.

PHIL 415. Medieval Philosophy. 3 Credits.

An intensive study of some medieval philosophical author (e.g., Aquinas, Scotus, or Ockham) or topic (e.g., arguments for the existence of God, universals, knowledge of individuals).
Repeat rules: May be repeated for credit. 6 total credits. 2 total completions.
Grading status: Letter grade.

PHIL 421. Rationalism. 3 Credits.

An in-depth study of such rationalist philosophers, Descartes, Spinoza, and Leibniz.
Repeat rules: May be repeated for credit. 6 total credits. 2 total completions.
Grading status: Letter grade.

PHIL 422. Empiricism. 3 Credits.

An in-depth study of such empiricist philosophers as Locke, Berkeley, and Hume.
Repeat rules: May be repeated for credit. 6 total credits. 2 total completions.
Grading status: Letter grade.

PHIL 423. Kant's Theoretical Philosophy. 3 Credits.

An intensive introduction to Kant's accounts of space, time, concepts, perception, substance, causation, and the thinking self through a careful study of his masterwork, The Critique of Pure Reason.
Repeat rules: May be repeated for credit. 6 total credits. 2 total completions.
Grading status: Letter grade.

PHIL 427. Hegel. 3 Credits.

In-depth study of Hegel's systematic philosophy emphasizing its roots in Kant's critical philosophy. Primary focus on Phenomenology of Spirit, supplemented by selections from the Encyclopedia and Philosophy of Right.
Repeat rules: May be repeated for credit. 6 total credits. 2 total completions.
Grading status: Letter grade.

PHIL 428. History of American Philosophy. 3 Credits.

An in-depth study of American contributions to philosophy, including for example the transcendentalists, the pragmatists, Quine, Rorty, and others.
Repeat rules: May be repeated for credit. 6 total credits. 2 total completions.
Grading status: Letter grade.

PHIL 432. The Beginnings of Analytic Philosophy. 3 Credits.

Two courses in philosophy other than PHIL 155 strongly recommended. Frege, Russell, Moore, and Wittgenstein among others are considered.
Repeat rules: May be repeated for credit. 6 total credits. 2 total completions.
Grading status: Letter grade.

PHIL 433. Current Issues in Analytic Philosophy. 3 Credits.

Two courses in philosophy other than PHIL 155 strongly recommended. Recent work in epistemology and metaphysics.
Repeat rules: May be repeated for credit. 9 total credits. 3 total completions.
Grading status: Letter grade.

PHIL 440. Philosophy of Mind. 3 Credits.

At least two courses in philosophy other than PHIL 155, including PHIL 340, strongly recommended. An examination of dualism, behaviorism, the identity theory, and forms of functionalism with special focus on the problems of mental aboutness and the problems of consciousness.
Repeat rules: May be repeated for credit. 6 total credits. 2 total completions.
Grading status: Letter grade.

PHIL 445. Philosophy of Language. 3 Credits.

At least two courses in philosophy other than PHIL 155, including PHIL 345, strongly recommended. A study of important contemporary contributions in philosophy of language. Topics include meaning, reference, and truth.
Repeat rules: May be repeated for credit. 6 total credits. 2 total completions.
Grading status: Letter grade
Same as: LING 410, LING 445.

PHIL 450. Philosophy of Natural Sciences. 3 Credits.

An in-depth survey of general issues in contemporary philosophy of natural science intended for advanced philosophy students. Topics include confirmation, explanation, theory-choice, realism, reduction.
Gen Ed: PH.
Repeat rules: May be repeated for credit. 6 total credits. 2 total completions.
Grading status: Letter grade.

PHIL 451. Philosophy of Physics. 3 Credits.

Topics may include the nature of space and time, the ontological status of fields and energy, or causation and locality in quantum physics.
Gen Ed: PL.
Repeat rules: May be repeated for credit. 6 total credits. 2 total completions.
Grading status: Letter grade.

PHIL 452. Philosophy of Biology. 3 Credits.

The logical structure of evolutionary theory, fitness, taxonomy, the notion of a living thing, reductionism, evolutionary explanations, teleology.
Repeat rules: May be repeated for credit. 6 total credits. 2 total completions.
Grading status: Letter grade.

PHIL 453. Philosophy of Psychology. 3 Credits.

Topics may include reasoning, the relationship between language and thought, concepts, moral cognition, and emotions.
Gen Ed: SS.
Repeat rules: May be repeated for credit. 6 total credits. 2 total completions.
Grading status: Letter grade.

PHIL 454. Philosophy, History, and the Social Sciences. 3 Credits.

The nature of historical explanation, structural and functional explanation, the weighing of historical testimony, the concept of meaning, normative judgments and predictions in the social sciences.
Repeat rules: May be repeated for credit. 6 total credits. 2 total completions.
Grading status: Letter grade.

PHIL 455. Symbolic Logic. 3 Credits.

Introduction for graduates and advanced undergraduates.
Gen Ed: QR.
Repeat rules: May be repeated for credit. 6 total credits. 2 total completions.
Grading status: Letter grade
Same as: LING 455.

PHIL 456. Advanced Symbolic Logic. 3 Credits.

Presupposes propositional and quantificational logic as a basis of further deductive development with special attention to selected topics: alternative systems, modal and deontic logic, inductive logic, the grammar of formalized languages, paradoxes, and foundations of mathematics.
Requisites: Prerequisite, PHIL 455.
Gen Ed: QI.
Repeat rules: May be repeated for credit. 12 total credits. 4 total completions.
Grading status: Letter grade.

PHIL 457. Set Theory and Logic. 3 Credits.

Natural and real numbers. Infinite cardinal and ordinal numbers. Alternative axiom systems and their consistency problems.
Requisites: Prerequisite, PHIL 455; permission of the instructor for students lacking the prerequisite.
Repeat rules: May be repeated for credit. 6 total credits. 2 total completions.
Grading status: Letter grade.

PHIL 459. Philosophy of Mathematics. 3 Credits.

Philosophical problems concerning logic and the foundation of mathematics.
Repeat rules: May be repeated for credit. 6 total credits. 2 total completions.
Grading status: Letter grade.

PHIL 460. History of Moral Philosophy. 3 Credits.

Examination of classic texts of Plato, Aristotle, Aquinas, Hobbes, Butler, Hume, Kant, and Mill. Selections may vary from year to year.
Requisites: Prerequisite, Two courses in philosophy other than PHIL 155, including PHIL 360, strongly recommended.
Gen Ed: PH.
Repeat rules: May be repeated for credit. 6 total credits. 2 total completions.
Grading status: Letter grade.

PHIL 462. Contemporary Moral Philosophy. 3 Credits.

Advanced discussion of moral issues such as fact and value, reason and morality, the nature of morality.
Requisites: Prerequisite, two courses in philosophy other than PHIL 155, including PHIL 362.
Gen Ed: PH.
Repeat rules: May be repeated for credit. 9 total credits. 3 total completions.
Grading status: Letter grade.

PHIL 463. Contemporary Moral and Social Problems. 3 Credits.

Two courses in philosophy other than PHIL 155 strongly recommended. A detailed examination of one or more of the following contemporary issues: environmental ethics, animal rights, abortion, euthanasia, pornography, racism, sexism, public versus private morality.
Repeat rules: May be repeated for credit. 6 total credits. 2 total completions.
Grading status: Letter grade.

PHIL 465. Justice in Health Care. 3 Credits.

One course in philosophy strongly recommended. Medical students welcome. The course will focus on the question of how scarce health care resources ought to be distributed in order to meet the demands of justice.
Repeat rules: May be repeated for credit. 6 total credits. 2 total completions.
Grading status: Letter grade.

PHIL 468. Risk and Society. 3 Credits.

One additional course in philosophy strongly recommended. The course examines attitudes toward risk and how they affect our preferences for different public policies in the areas of environmental protection, technology regulation, and workplace and product safety.
Requisites: Prerequisite, PHIL 155.
Repeat rules: May be repeated for credit. 6 total credits. 2 total completions.
Grading status: Letter grade.

PHIL 470. Political Philosophy from Hobbes to Rousseau. 3 Credits.

Two courses in philosophy other than PHIL 155, including PHIL 170 or 370, strongly recommended. Explores the foundations of justice and authority in the idea of contract or covenant, the nature of law, rights, liberty, and democracy in the work of Hobbes, Locke, Hume, Rousseau.
Gen Ed: PH.
Repeat rules: May be repeated for credit. 6 total credits. 2 total completions.
Grading status: Letter grade.

PHIL 471. Hegel, Marx, and the Philosophical Critique of Society. 3 Credits.

An examination of central issues in social and political philosophy as they figure in the work of Hegel, Marx, Nietzsche, and others.
Repeat rules: May be repeated for credit. 6 total credits. 2 total completions.
Grading status: Letter grade.

PHIL 473. American Political Philosophy. 3 Credits.

One course in philosophy other than PHIL 155 strongly recommended. Juniors and seniors only. The issue of unity and diversity in America is analyzed through the writings of Jefferson, the Federalists and Anti-Federalists, Calhoun, MacKinnon, DuBois, and Rawls.
Gen Ed: US.
Repeat rules: May be repeated for credit. 6 total credits. 2 total completions.
Grading status: Letter grade.

PHIL 474. Foundations of Modern Political Philosophy. 3 Credits.

This course traces the emergence and development of central themes of modern political philosophy from the 13th through the 17th century.
Requisites: Prerequisite, PHIL 170.
Gen Ed: PH.
Repeat rules: May be repeated for credit. 6 total credits. 2 total completions.
Grading status: Letter grade.

PHIL 475. Philosophical Issues in Gender, Race, and Class. 3 Credits.

Examines in greater depth and complexity one or more of the issues addressed in PHIL 275, investigating issues of gender, race, and class within the dominant theories of philosophy.
Requisites: Prerequisite, PHIL 275 or WGST 101.
Gen Ed: US.
Repeat rules: May be repeated for credit. 6 total credits. 2 total completions.
Grading status: Letter grade
Same as: WGST 475.

PHIL 476. Recent Developments in Political Philosophy. 3 Credits.

Two courses in philosophy other than PHIL 155, including PHIL 370, strongly recommended. Investigation of major contemporary contributors (Rawls, Nozick, Dworkin, Cohen, Waldron, Arrow) to philosophical debate concerning justice, equality, liberty, democracy, public reason, or rights versus community.
Gen Ed: PH.
Repeat rules: May be repeated for credit. 9 total credits. 3 total completions.
Grading status: Letter grade.

PHIL 480. Philosophy of Law. 3 Credits.

An exploration of whether and under what conditions the state has the right to control crime by punishment of past crimes and preventive detention to prevent future crimes.
Gen Ed: PH.
Repeat rules: May be repeated for credit. 6 total credits. 2 total completions.
Grading status: Letter grade.

PHIL 482. Philosophy and Literature. 3 Credits.

Philosophical readings of literary texts, including novels, plays, and poems.
Repeat rules: May be repeated for credit. 6 total credits. 2 total completions.
Grading status: Letter grade
Same as: CMPL 482.

PHIL 485. Philosophy of Art. 3 Credits.

Competing theories of art and art criticism. The relationship between art and emotional expression, the formal character of art, and standards of taste.
Repeat rules: May be repeated for credit. 6 total credits. 2 total completions.
Grading status: Letter grade.

PHIL 491. Health Care, Science, and Philosophy. 3 Credits.

Interdisciplinary course to develop critical thinking capacities through philosophical study of the nature of scientific presuppositions and concepts, including events, causality, and determinism, with specific application to health care issues.
Repeat rules: May be repeated for credit. 6 total credits. 2 total completions.
Grading status: Letter grade.

PHIL 494. Existentialism and Phenomenology. 3 Credits.

A study of one or two major systematic works by Sartre, Heidegger, or Merleau-Ponty.
Repeat rules: May be repeated for credit. 6 total credits. 2 total completions.
Grading status: Letter grade.

PHIL 496. Advanced Directed Studies. 1-3 Credits.

Permission of the director of undergraduate studies. Advanced independent work in philosophy.
Repeat rules: May be repeated for credit. 9 total credits. 3 total completions.
Grading status: Letter grade.

PHIL 562. Ethics, Responsibility, and Justice. 1 Credit.

Ethics explores obligations to act in the interest of others as well as ourselves. Justice explores the ways people should organize and govern themselves. Course addresses such questions as, What principles govern our relationships with other people? What do we owe others and ourselves? How should we treat other people?
Repeat rules: May be repeated for credit. 2 total credits. 2 total completions.
Grading status: Pass/Fail.

PHIL 691H. Courses for Honors. 3 Credits.

Permission of the director of undergraduate studies. See the director of undergraduate studies of the department.
Gen Ed: CI, EE-Mentored Research.
Grading status: Letter grade.

PHIL 692H. Courses for Honors. 3 Credits.

Permission of the director of undergraduate studies. See the director of undergraduate studies of the department.
Gen Ed: EE-Mentored Research.
Grading status: Letter grade.

PHIL 698. Philosophy, Politics, and Economics II: Capstone Course. 3 Credits.

Permission of the department. This capstone course advances PHIL 384, focusing on such theoretical and philosophical issues as the analysis of rights or distributive justice and the institutional implications of moral forms.
Requisites: Prerequisite, PHIL 384.
Grading status: Letter grade
Same as: ECON 698, POLI 698.