Department of Biology

Department of Biology

http://bio.unc.edu

Coker Hall, 120 South Road, CB# 3280

(919) 962-2077

Dr. Gidi Shemer, Senior Lecturer and Departmental Advisor, Abbey Fellow

bishemer@email.unc.edu

Dr. Jason W. Reed, Associate Professor and Director of Undergraduate Studies

jreed@email.unc.edu

Dr. Alain Laederach, Associate Professor, Biology Study Abroad

alain@unc.edu

Dr. Mara Evans, Lecturer, Career Advising

mara1@email.unc.edu

Ms. Summer Montgomery, Assistant for Undergraduate Services

sundance@unc.edu

VICTORIA L. BAUTCH, Chair

Introduction

Biology is the study of life from both basic and applied perspectives across a broad range of analytical levels, from the molecule and cell to the organism and ecosystem. The major in biology provides a broad education directed toward an appreciation of the complexity of nature, and prepares students for careers in the biological, environmental, and medical sciences. The B.S. and B.A. majors in biology prepare students for careers in the health professions (including medical, dental, and veterinary) and in research or teaching in institutions of higher education, government, and private industry. Departmental majors gain a firm foundation in essential areas of biology through the core curriculum and have ample choices for study in various specialized subjects. A quantitative biology track in the B.S. major provides training in interdisciplinary computational approaches to studying biological questions. The department offers many opportunities for mentored undergraduate research and internships.

Advising

The biology department offers intensive advising services for our undergraduate students. The departmental advisor, Dr. Gidi Shemer (213A Coker Hall), will be happy to assist with course planning, career development, finding research opportunities, and any other question or concern with regards to the major. Biology majors interested in study abroad should contact Dr. Elaine Yeh to learn about opportunities and transfer credits. For general assistance with registration in courses and various forms, please contact the biology undergraduate student services registrar, Ms. Summer Montgomery in 213 Coker Hall.

Facilities

The Department of Biology occupies parts of four buildings: Wilson Hall and its annex, Coker Hall, Fordham Hall, and the Genome Sciences Building. The department is served by the Kenan Science Library, located in Venable Hall and Wilson Annex, which provides research information services and resources for the basic sciences. In addition, the department has greenhouses on the fifth floor of the Genome Sciences Building, a microscopy facility that contains three confocal microscopes and associated support facilities, a P3 laboratory, a small-mammal facility, insect culturing rooms, marine aquaria, and a microarray facility.

Graduate School and Career Opportunities

Those who plan careers in health sciences, including dentistry, medicine, and veterinary medicine, should consult with advisors in the Health Professions Advising Office in Hanes Hall. Those interested in science teaching can take the educational coursework required for a high school science teaching license through the UNC Baccalaureate Education in Science and Teaching (UNC–BEST) program. Special courses in marine science are offered through the Department of Biology and the Department of Marine Sciences at the Institute of Marine Sciences, Morehead City, NC.

Professors

Shawn Ahmed, Albert S. Baldwin Jr., Victoria L. Bautch, Kerry S. Bloom, John F. Bruno, Frank L. Conlon, Jeffrey L. Dangl, Robert J. Duronio, Patricia G. Gensel, Robert P. Goldstein, Albert K. Harris, Alan M. Jones, Joseph J. Kieber, William M. Kier, Joel G. Kingsolver, Kenneth J. Lohmann, A. Gregory Matera, Steven W. Matson, Ann G. Matthysse, Robert K. Peet, Mark A. Peifer, Charles H. Peterson, David W. Pfennig, Jeff J. Sekelsky, Maria R. Servedio, Darrel W. Stafford, Peter S. White.

Associate Professors

Christina L. Burch, Sabrina E. Burmeister, Gregory P. Copenhaver, Ty L. Hedrick, Corbin D. Jones, Laura Miller, Charles E. Mitchell, Karin S. Pfennig, Jason W. Reed, Stephen L. Rogers, Lillie L. Searles, Kevin C. Slep, Keith W. Sockman, Todd J. Vision.

Assistant Professors

Jill Dowen, Terrence S. Furey, Allen H. Hurlbert, Alain Laederach, Amy S. Maddox, Paul S. Maddox, Christopher Martin, Daniel R. Matute, Daniel J. McKay, Zachary Nimchuk, Elizabeth A. Shank.

Teaching Professor

Jean S. DeSaix.

Senior Lecturers

Kelly A. Hogan, Corey S. Johnson.

Lecturers

Jennifer S. Coble, Mara Evans, Catherine M.F. Lohmann, Gidi Shemer, Blaire Steinwand.

Affiliated Faculty

Stephen T. Crews, Sarah R. Grant, William F. Marzluff, Punita Nagpal, Edward D. Salmon, Barbara D. Stegenga, James A. Umbanhower, Alan S. Weakley, Christopher S. Willett, Elaine Y. Yeh.

Professors Emeriti

Edward G. Barry, Aristotle Domnas, J. Alan Feduccia, Lawrence I. Gilbert, Max H. Hommersand, Gustavo P. Maroni, Donald W. Misch, Helmut C. Mueller, Clifford R. Parks, Patricia J. Pukkila, Tom K. Scott, Alan E. Stiven, R. Haven Wiley.

Course List and Description

Stated prerequisites are understood to mean “or equivalent” and may be waived by the course instructor for students who are adequately prepared. BIOL 101/BIOL 101L is the prerequisite for most advanced work in biology. Entering first-year students may earn By-Examination (BE) credit for BIOL 101/BIOL 101L by either

  1. scoring 3 or higher on the Biology Advanced Placement examination or
  2. taking and passing the Department of Biology placement test offered several times during the year.

Sophomores, juniors, and seniors can earn only placement credit (PL, 0 hours) for passing the departmental examination. Additional information is available on the department Web site.

Course numbers in the Department of Biology have been assigned according to the following principles:

First Digit

Under 100: first-year seminars

100 to 199: first-year courses

200 to 299: second-year courses

300 to 399: advanced undergraduates only

400 to 599: courses for advanced undergraduates and graduate students

600 to 699: courses for graduate students that are open to exceptionally well-prepared undergraduates

700 and above: courses for graduate students only

Second Digit

0–1 general topics courses

2 genetics and molecular genetics

3 molecular biology and biochemistry

4 cell and developmental biology

5 organismal and ecological courses

6 ecology courses

7 courses that fulfill the organismal biology requirement

8 special courses

9 special topics and research

BIOL–Biology

Undergraduate-level Courses

BIOL 53. First-Year Seminar: Biotechnology: Genetically Modified Foods to the Sequence of the Human Genome. 3 Credits.

Restricted to first-year students. Introduction, in a first-year seminar, to recent advances in genetics and cell biology, and discussion and debate concerning how these advances are changing medicine, agriculture, and other aspects of our lives.
Gen Ed: PL.
Grading status: Letter grade.

BIOL 55. First-Year Seminar: The Roots and Flowering of Civilization: A Seminar on Plants and People. 3 Credits.

Restricted to first-year students. The focus of this first-year seminar will be on the transition from hunter-gatherer, the interchange of crops, medicinal and psychoactive plants, and organic vs. industrial farming methods.
Gen Ed: PL.
Grading status: Letter grade.

BIOL 57. First-Year Seminar: Detecting the Future: Human Diseases and Genetic Tests. 3 Credits.

Restricted to first-year students. A first-year seminar focusing on the future of human diseases and genetic tests.
Gen Ed: PL.
Grading status: Letter grade.

BIOL 61. First-Year Seminar: Sea Turtles: A Case Study in the Biology of Conservation. 3 Credits.

Restricted to first-year students. An examination of the biology and conservation of sea turtles, with an emphasis on how current scientific research informs conservation practices.
Gen Ed: PL.
Grading status: Letter grade.

BIOL 62. First-Year Seminar: Mountains Beyond Mountains: Infectious Disease in the Developing World. 3 Credits.

Restricted to first-year students. In this course we will examine the challenges of treating infectious disease in the developing world, and explore the root causes of global health care inequity.
Gen Ed: PL, GL.
Grading status: Letter grade.

BIOL 65. First-Year Seminar: Pneumonia. 3 Credits.

Restricted to first-year students. Pneumonia will be a lens to examine a thread of history of biology and medicine. Current research to understand the condition, discover treatment and enact prevention options will be examined.
Gen Ed: PL.
Grading status: Letter grade.

BIOL 81. First-Year Seminar: Intuition, Initiative and Industry: Biologists as Entrepreneurs. 3 Credits.

Successful biologists are necessarily entrepreneurs. This course will explore the parallels between biology and entrepreneurship. We follow these steps: generating ideas, marketing those ideas, testing them, and producing a product.
Gen Ed: CI.
Grading status: Letter grade.

BIOL 89. First Year Seminar: Special Topics. 3 Credits.

Restricted to first-year students. This is a special topics course; content will vary.
Repeat rules: May be repeated for credit; may be repeated in the same term for different topics; 6 total credits. 2 total completions.
Grading status: Letter grade.

BIOL 101. Principles of Biology. 3 Credits.

Open to all undergraduates. This course is the prerequisite to most higher courses in biology. An introduction to the fundamental principles of biology, including cell structure, chemistry, and function; genetics; evolution; adaptation; and ecology. (See department concerning Advanced Placement credit.) Three lecture hours a week. Honors version available
Gen Ed: PX.
Grading status: Letter grade.

BIOL 101L. Introductory Biology Laboratory. 1 Credit.

An examination of the fundamental concepts in biology with emphasis on scientific inquiry. Biological systems will be analyzed through experimentation, dissection, and observation. Three laboratory hours a week.
Requisites: Pre- or corequisite, BIOL 101.
Gen Ed: CI.
Grading status: Letter grade.

BIOL 113. Issues in Modern Biology. 3 Credits.

For students not majoring in biology. Students who have taken any other course in the Department of Biology may not register for this course. Recent advances in the understanding of major principles in biology. Emphasis on genetics and medicine. Does not count as a course in the major. Three lecture hours a week.
Gen Ed: PL.
Grading status: Letter grade.

BIOL 128. Biology of Human Disease. 3 Credits.

Open to all undergraduates. An overview of basic human molecular and cellular biology in the setting of common human diseases. The course emphasizes how an understanding of disease mechanisms provides the knowledge base for informed use of modern health care. Does not count as a course in the major.
Grading status: Letter grade
Same as: PATH 128.

BIOL 159. Prehistoric Life. 3 Credits.

Fossils and the origin and evolution of life, including micro- and macroevolution, mass extinctions, the evolution of dinosaurs and humans, and scientific perspectives on multicultural creationism. Optional laboratory, GEOL 101L. PX credit for GEOL 159 + 101L.
Gen Ed: PX.
Grading status: Letter grade
Same as: GEOL 159.

BIOL 190. Special Topics in Biology at an Introductory Level. 3 Credits.

Special topics in biology at an introductory level. This course does not count as a course in the biology major.
Grading status: Letter grade.

BIOL 190L. Laboratory in Special Topics in Biology at an Introductory Level. 1 Credit.

Laboratory in special topics in biology at an introductory level. This course does not count as a course in the biology major.
Grading status: Letter grade.

BIOL 195. Introduction to Research. 1 Credit.

The research work must involve at least four hours per week of mentored research in a campus research laboratory. Does not count as a course in the major.
Repeat rules: May be repeated for credit. 2 total credits. 2 total completions.
Grading status: Pass/Fail.

BIOL 201. Ecology and Evolution. 4 Credits.

Principles governing the ecology and evolution of populations, communities, and ecosystems, including speciation, population genetics, population regulation, and community and ecosystem structure and dynamics. Three lecture hours and one recitation-demonstration-conference hour a week. Honors version available
Requisites: Prerequisites, BIOL 101 and CHEM 101 or 102; A grade of C or better in BIOL 101 and CHEM 101 or 102 required.
Gen Ed: PL, QI.
Grading status: Letter grade.

BIOL 202. Molecular Biology and Genetics. 4 Credits.

Structure and function of nucleic acids, principles of inheritance, gene expression, and genetic engineering. Three lecture hours and one recitation-demonstration-conference hour a week. Honors version available
Requisites: Prerequisites, BIOL 101 and CHEM 101 or 102; A grade of C or better in BIOL 101 and CHEM 101 or 102 is required.
Gen Ed: PL.
Grading status: Letter grade.

BIOL 205. Cellular and Developmental Biology. 4 Credits.

Fundamentals of cell structure and activity in relation to special functions, metabolism, reproduction, embryogenesis, and with an introduction to the experimental analysis of cell physiology and development. Three lectures and one recitation-demonstration-conference hour a week. Honors version available
Requisites: Prerequisite, BIOL 202.
Grading status: Letter grade.

BIOL 211. Introduction to Research in Biology. 3 Credits.

Seminar based on current investigations at UNC. Students examine sources of scientific information, explore the logic of investigation, and develop proposals. Students with BIOL 211 credit may take a maximum of three hours of BIOL 395.
Requisites: Prerequisite, BIOL 201 or 202; permission of the instructor for students lacking the prerequisite; Not open to seniors.
Grading status: Letter grade.

BIOL 213. Evolution and Life. 3 Credits.

For students not majoring in biology. Introduction to the scientific study of biological evolution and its applications. The mechanisms that cause evolution and general patterns of evolution during the history of life. Does not count as a course in the major.
Requisites: Prerequisite, BIOL 101; permission of the instructor for students lacking the prerequisite.
Grading status: Letter grade.

BIOL 217. The Physician's Garden. 3 Credits.

First-year transfer students only. This course combines human cell biology and classical botany elaborating the mode of action of plant metabolites in humans. Hands-on experience includes visits to a pharmaceutical company, a botanical garden, and maintaining the campus medicinal garden.
Requisites: Prerequisite, BIOL 101.
Grading status: Letter grade.

BIOL 221. Food Mislabeling, Conservation, and Human Health. 3 Credits.

Introduction to scientific research projects using DNA barcoding to identify organisms present in environmental or food samples. Students will discuss relevant literature, develop hypotheses, analyze data, write a manuscript, and present results.
Requisites: Prerequisite, BIOL 101; co-requisite, BIOL 221L; Permission of the instructor for students lacking the prerequisite.
Grading status: Letter grade.

BIOL 221L. Food Mislabeling, Conservation and Human Health Lab. 1 Credit.

Introduction to scientific research projects using DNA barcoding to identify organisms present in environmental or food samples. Students will perform experiments based on hypotheses formulated in the corequisite lecture course.
Requisites: Prerequisite, BIOL 101; co-requisite, BIOL 221; Permission of the instructor for students lacking the prerequisite.
Grading status: Letter grade.

BIOL 224H. The Mathematics of Life. 3 Credits.

An accessible treatment of classic mathematical applications to molecules, cells, development, genetics, ecology, and evolution, complementing the material taught in BIOL 201, 202, and 205. Three lecture hours a week.
Requisites: prerequisite, MATH 231; Permission of the instructor for students lacking the prerequisite. Co-requisite, BIOL 224L;
Grading status: Letter grade.

BIOL 224L. The Mathematics of Life Laboratory. 1 Credit.

An accessible treatment of classic mathematical applications to molecules, cells, development, genetics, ecology, and evolution, complementing the material taught in BIOL 201, 202, and 205. This lab component is programming-based.
Requisites: prerequisite, MATH 231; Permission of the instructor for students lacking the prerequisite. Co-requisite, BIOL 224H;
Grading status: Letter grade.

BIOL 226. Mathematical Methods for Quantitative Biology. 3 Credits.

Introduction to quantitative biology with emphasis on applications that use mathematical modeling, linear algebra, differential equations, and computer programming. Applications may include neural networks, biomechanics, dispersion, and systems of biochemical reactions. Three lecture hours a week.
Requisites: Prerequisites, BIOL 201 or 202, and MATH 232 or 283. Corequisite, BIOL 226L.
Gen Ed: QI.
Grading status: Letter grade.

BIOL 226L. Mathematical Methods for Quantitative Biology Laboratory. 1 Credit.

Introduction to quantitative biology with emphasis on applications that use mathematical modeling, linear algebra, differential equations, and computer programming. Applications may include neural networks, biomechanics, dispersion, and systems of biochemical reactions. Three laboratory hours a week.
Requisites: Prerequisites, BIOL 201 or 202, and MATH 232 or 283. Corequisite, BIOL 226.
Grading status: Letter grade.

BIOL 251. Introduction to Human Anatomy and Physiology. 3 Credits.

This course relates the way in which the human body is constructed to the way in which it functions and is controlled. Students may not receive credit for both BIOL 251 and BIOL 252. Only offered through Continuing Studies.
Gen Ed: PX.
Grading status: Letter grade.

BIOL 251L. Human Physiology Virtual Laboratory. 1 Credit.

permission of the instructor for students lacking the prerequisite. This is a course of simulated laboratory measurements exercises using typical data derived from actual physiological measurements on human subjects. Only offered though continuing education. Students may not receive credit for both BIOL 251L and BIOL 252.
Requisites: Pre- or corequisite, BIOL 251;
Grading status: Letter grade.

BIOL 252. Fundamentals of Human Anatomy and Physiology. 3 Credits.

One biology course over 200 recommended. An introductory but comprehensive course emphasizing the relationship between form and function of the body's organ systems. Three lecture hours each week. Students may not receive credit for BIOL 252 and BIOL 251 or BIOL 251L or BIOL 352 or BIOL 353.
Requisites: Prerequisite, BIOL 101. Corequisite, BIOL 252L.
Gen Ed: PX.
Grading status: Letter grade.

BIOL 252L. Fundamentals of Human Anatomy and Physiology Laboratory. 1 Credit.

Permission of the instructor for students lacking the pre- or corequisite. Organ level human structure and function. Three laboratory hours a week.
Requisites: Prerequisite, BIOL 101 and 101L; corequisite, BIOL 252.
Grading status: Letter grade.

BIOL 256. Mountain Biodiversity. 4 Credits.

Introduction to the new field of biodiversity studies, which integrates approaches from systematics, ecology, evolution, and conservation.
Grading status: Letter grade
Same as: ENEC 256.

BIOL 271. Plant Biology. 3 Credits.

Designed for students with an interest in natural sciences. An introduction to the principles of botany including structure, function, reproduction, heredity, environmental relationships, evolution and classification of plants. Three lecture hours a week.
Requisites: Prerequisites, BIOL 101 and 101L. Corequisite, BIOL 271L.
Gen Ed: PX.
Grading status: Letter grade.

BIOL 271L. Plant Biology Laboratory. 1 Credit.

Designed for students with an interest in natural sciences. An introduction to the principles of botany including structure, function, reproduction, heredity, environmental relationships, evolution and classification of plants. Three laboratory hours a week.
Requisites: Prerequisites, BIOL 101 and 101L. Corequisite, BIOL 271.
Grading status: Letter grade.

BIOL 272. Local Flora. 4 Credits.

Open to all undergraduates. North Carolina's flora: recognition, identification, classification, evolution, history, economics, plant families, ecology, and conservation. Three lecture and three laboratory hours per week.
Requisites: Prerequisites, BIOL 101 and 101L.
Gen Ed: PX.
Grading status: Letter grade.

BIOL 273. Horticulture. 4 Credits.

The cultivation, propagation and breeding of plants, with emphasis on ornamentals. Control of environmental factors for optimal plant growth. Laboratory exercises include plant culture, propagation, pruning, and identification of common ornamentals. Two lecture, one recitation, and three laboratory hours a week.
Requisites: Prerequisite, BIOL 101.
Gen Ed: PX.
Grading status: Letter grade.

BIOL 274. Plant Diversity. 3 Credits.

Survey of major groups of plants emphasizing interrelationships and comparative morphology. Culturing techniques and field work included. Three lecture hours a week.
Requisites: Prerequisites, BIOL 101 and 101L. Corequisite, BIOL 274L.
Gen Ed: PX, EE-Field Work.
Grading status: Letter grade.

BIOL 274L. Plant Diversity Laboratory. 1 Credit.

Survey of major groups of plants emphasizing interrelationships and comparative morphology. Culturing techniques and field work included. Three laboratory hours a week.
Requisites: Prerequisites, BIOL 101 and 101L. Corequisite, BIOL 274.
Grading status: Letter grade.

BIOL 277. Vertebrate Field Zoology. 3 Credits.

Introduction to the diversity, ecology, behavior, and conservation of living vertebrates. Three lecture hours a week.
Requisites: Prerequisites, BIOL 101 and 101L.
Gen Ed: PX.
Grading status: Letter grade.

BIOL 277L. Vertebrate Field Zoology Laboratory. 1 Credit.

Permission of the instructor for students lacking the corequisite. Study of the diversity of vertebrates in the field. Three laboratory and field hours a week, including one or two weekend trips.
Requisites: Corequisite, BIOL 277.
Gen Ed: EE-Field Work.
Grading status: Letter grade.

BIOL 278. Animal Behavior. 3 Credits.

Introduction to animal behavior with emphases on the diversity and adaptation of behavior in natural conditions. Three lecture hours a week.
Requisites: Prerequisites, BIOL 101 and 101L.
Gen Ed: PX.
Grading status: Letter grade.

BIOL 278L. Animal Behavior Laboratory. 1 Credit.

Techniques of observation and experiments in animal behavior. Three laboratory hours a week.
Requisites: Pre- or corequisite, BIOL 278.
Grading status: Letter grade.

BIOL 279. Seminar in Organismal Biology. 2-3 Credits.

Permission of the instructor. An undergraduate course devoted to consideration of pertinent aspects of a selected organismal biological discipline.
Gen Ed: PL.
Grading status: Letter grade.

BIOL 279L. Topics in Organismal Biology Laboratory. 1-2 Credits.

Permission of the instructor. An undergraduate laboratory course covering aspects of a specific organismal biological discipline. Laboratory reports will be required. Research work is not included in this course.
Grading status: Letter grade.

BIOL 290. Special Topics in Biology. 1-3 Credits.

Permission of the instructor. An undergraduate seminar course devoted to consideration of pertinent aspects of a selected biological discipline. Honors version available
Gen Ed: PL.
Repeat rules: May be repeated for credit; may be repeated in the same term for different topics; 9 total credits. 3 total completions.
Grading status: Letter grade.

BIOL 290L. Special Topics in Biology Laboratory. 1-2 Credits.

Permission of the instructor. An undergraduate laboratory course covering aspects of a specific biological discipline. Laboratory reports will be required. Research work is not included in this course.
Repeat rules: May be repeated for credit; may be repeated in the same term for different topics; 6 total credits. 3 total completions.
Grading status: Letter grade.

BIOL 291. Teaching Apprentice in Biology. 1 Credit.

Permission required. 3.0 or higher in course taught. Experience includes preparations, demonstrations, assistance, and attendance at weekly meetings. Apprentices will not be involved in any aspects of grading. May be repeated for credit.
Repeat rules: May be repeated for credit. 3 total credits. 3 total completions.
Grading status: Pass/Fail.

BIOL 292. Teaching Assistant in Biology. 2 Credits.

Permission required. 3.0 in course taught. Experience includes weekly meetings, preparations, demonstrations, instruction, and grading. May be repeated for credit. Six hours per week.
Repeat rules: May be repeated for credit. 6 total credits. 3 total completions.
Grading status: Pass/Fail.

BIOL 293. Undergraduate Internship in Biology. 3 Credits.

Permission of the instructor. Biology majors only. The sponsored, off-campus work must involve at least 135 hours. Does not count as a course in the major.
Requisites: Prerequisite, BIOL 201 or 202.
Gen Ed: EE-Academic Internship.
Grading status: Letter grade.

BIOL 294. Service Learning in Biology: APPLES. 1-2 Credits.

Permission of the instructor. APPLES service-learning component for students enrolled in biology courses. Does not count as a course in the major. Honors version available
Gen Ed: EE-Service Learning.
Grading status: Letter grade.

BIOL 295. Undergraduate Research in Biology. 3 Credits.

Permission of the instructor. Junior and senior biology majors only. The work must involve at least 135 hours of research effort in which students learn to ask appropriate questions and place results in a suitable framework.
Requisites: Prerequisite, BIOL 201 or 202.
Gen Ed: EE-Academic Internship.
Repeat rules: May be repeated for credit. 6 total credits. 2 total completions.
Grading status: Letter grade.

BIOL 296. Directed Readings in Biology. 1-3 Credits.

Permission of the instructor. Extensive and intensive reading of the literature of a specific biological field directly supervised by a member of the biology faculty. Written reports on the readings, or a literature review paper will be required. Cannot be used as a course toward the major. Honors version available
Grading status: Letter grade.

BIOL 350. Oceanography. 3 Credits.

Required preparation, major in a natural science or two courses in natural sciences. Studies origin of ocean basins, seawater chemistry and dynamics, biological communities, sedimentary record, and oceanographic history. Term paper. Students lacking science background should see MASC 101. Students may not receive credit for both MASC 101 and MASC 401.
Grading status: Letter grade
Same as: MASC 401, ENVR 417, GEOL 403.

BIOL 352. Human Anatomy and Physiology Part I. 3 Credits.

BIOL 205 recommended. A comprehensive study of the structure and function of the human body. Includes comprehensive study of tissues and the integumentary, skeletal, muscular, and nervous systems. Three lecture hours each week. Students may not receive credit for both BIOL 352 and BIOL 252.
Requisites: Prerequisites, BIOL 101 and 101L; co-requisite, BIOL 352L.
Grading status: Letter grade.

BIOL 352L. Human Anatomy and Physiology Part I Laboratory. 1 Credit.

A hands-on study of the structure and function of the human body. Includes comprehensive study of the skeletal, muscular, and nervous systems. Three laboratory hours each week.
Requisites: Prerequisite, BIOL 101L; co-requisite, BIOL 352; Permission of the instructor for students lacking the pre- or co-requisite.
Grading status: Letter grade.

BIOL 353. Human Anatomy and Physiology Part II. 3 Credits.

Studies the structure, function, and development of the human body: endocrine, cardiovascular, lymphatic/immune, respiratory, digestive, urinary, reproductive systems. Three lecture hours each week. Can be used as an allied science elective but not a biology course for the major. Students may not receive credit for both BIOL 353 and BIOL 252.
Requisites: Prerequisite, BIOL 352; co-requisite, BIOL 353L.
Grading status: Letter grade.

BIOL 353L. Human Anatomy and Physiology Part II Laboratory. 1 Credit.

A hands-on study of the structure and function of the human body. Includes study of the cardiovascular, respiratory, digestive, urinary, reproductive systems. Three laboratory hours each week.
Requisites: Prerequisite, BIOL 352L; co-requisite, BIOL 353; Permission of the instructor for students lacking the pre- or co-requisite.
Grading status: Letter grade.

BIOL 395. Undergraduate Research in Biology. 1-3 Credits.

Permission of the instructor. Majors only. Overall 3.0 GPA required. Laboratory study addressing biological questions. Requires final written report. Repeatable for six credit hours. One through five hours counts as a lecture course. Six hours (or BIOL 211 and three hours of BIOL 395) counts as a lecture/laboratory course. Honors version available
Requisites: Prerequisite, BIOL 201 or 202.
Gen Ed: EE-Mentored Research.
Repeat rules: May be repeated for credit. 6 total credits. 3 total completions.
Grading status: Letter grade.

Advanced Undergraduate and Graduate-level Courses

BIOL 402. Infectious Disease in the Developing World. 3 Credits.

We will explore the challenges of infectious disease in the developing world, focusing on tuberculosis, HIV, and malaria. We will also examine the economics of different approaches to health care.
Requisites: Prerequisites, BIOL 202 and 205.
Grading status: Letter grade.

BIOL 410. Principles and Methods of Teaching Biology. 4 Credits.

This course will develop the knowledge and skills teachers need to implement inquiry-based biology instruction: rich, conceptual knowledge of biology and mastery of inquiry-based teaching methods. Does not count as a laboratory course.
Requisites: Prerequisites, two of the three biology core courses: BIOL 201, 202, and/or 205.
Gen Ed: EE-Field Work.
Grading status: Letter grade.

BIOL 421L. Microbiology Laboratory with Research. 2 Credits.

Sterile technique, bacterial growth, physiology, genetics and diversity, and bacteriophage. Research in bacterial genetics.
Requisites: Pre- or corequisite, BIOL 422.
Gen Ed: EE-Mentored Research.
Grading status: Letter grade.

BIOL 422. Microbiology. 3 Credits.

Bacterial form, growth, physiology, genetics, and diversity. Bacterial interactions including symbiosis and pathogenesis (animal and plant). Use of bacteria in biotechnology. Brief introduction to viruses.
Requisites: Prerequisite, BIOL 202; permission of the instructor for students lacking the prerequisite.
Grading status: Letter grade.

BIOL 422L. Microbiology Laboratory. 1-2 Credits.

Sterile technique, bacterial growth and physiology, bacterial genetics, bacteriophage, and bacterial diversity.
Requisites: Pre- or corequisite, BIOL 422.
Grading status: Letter grade.

BIOL 423. Laboratory Experiments in Genetics. 4 Credits.

Experiments using a range of organisms--from bacteria to Drosophila, higher plants, and man-- to sample organismal and molecular genetics. One lecture hour, four laboratory hours.
Requisites: Prerequisite, BIOL 205.
Grading status: Letter grade.

BIOL 424. Microbial Ecology. 3 Credits.

Instructor permission for students lacking prerequisite. Class emphasizes the creativity of the scientific process, using primary scientific literature as a framework to discuss topics in microbial ecology, including microbial diversity, distributions, genomics, and co-evolution; host-microbe and microbe-microbe interactions; nutrient cycling; and degradation of plant matter and biofuels.
Requisites: Prerequisite, BIOL 201.
Grading status: Letter grade.

BIOL 425. Human Genetics. 3 Credits.

Pedigree analysis, inheritance of complex traits, DNA damage and repair, human genome organization, DNA fingerprinting, the genes of hereditary diseases, chromosomal aberrations, cancer and oncogenes, immunogenetics and tissue transplants. Three lecture hours a week.
Requisites: Prerequisite, BIOL 202; permission of the instructor for students lacking the prerequisite.
Grading status: Letter grade
Same as: GNET 425.

BIOL 426. Biology of Blood Diseases. 3 Credits.

An introduction to the biology and pathophysiology of blood and the molecular mechanisms of some human diseases: anemias; leukemias; hemorrhagic, thrombotic, and vascular disorders; and HIV disease/AIDS. Honors version available
Requisites: Prerequisite, BIOL 205; Permission of the instructor for students lacking the prerequisite.
Same as: PATH 426.

BIOL 427. Human Diversity and Population Genetics. 3 Credits.

permission of the instructor for students lacking the prerequisites. This course investigates the facts, methods, and theories behind human population genetics, evolution, and diversity. Specifically, it addresses questions of human origins, population structure, and genetic diversity.
Requisites: Pre- or corequisites, BIOL 201 and 202;
Grading status: Letter grade.

BIOL 430. Introduction to Biological Chemistry. 3 Credits.

The study of cellular processes including catalysts, metabolism, bioenergetics, and biochemical genetics. The structure and function of biological macromolecules involved in these processes is emphasized. Honors version available
Requisites: Prerequisites, BIOL 101, and CHEM 262 or 262H.
Grading status: Letter grade
Same as: CHEM 430.

BIOL 431. Biological Physics. 3 Credits.

How diffusion, entropy, electrostatics, and hydrophobicity generate order and force in biology. Topics include DNA manipulation, intracellular transport, cell division, molecular motors, single molecule biophysics techniques, nerve impulses, neuroscience.
Requisites: Prerequisites, PHYS 116 and 117, or PHYS 118 and 119.
Grading status: Letter grade
Same as: PHYS 405, BMME 435.

BIOL 434. Molecular Biology. 3 Credits.

Advanced studies in molecular biology from an experimental approach.
Requisites: Prerequisites, BIOL 202 and CHEM 261; permission of the instructor for students lacking the prerequisites.
Grading status: Letter grade.

BIOL 436. Plant Genetics, Development, and Biotechnology. 3 Credits.

Permission of the instructor for students lacking the prerequisite. Recent advances in plant molecular biology, genetics, development, and biotechnology, and their potential relevance to agriculture. The course will include lectures, reading and discussions of papers from the primary literature, and student presentations.
Requisites: Prerequisite, BIOL 271 or 202.
Grading status: Letter grade.

BIOL 439. Introduction to Signal Transduction. 3 Credits.

This course presents an introduction to signal transduction pathways used by higher eukaryotes. Several signaling paradigms will be discussed to illustrate the ways that cells transmit information. Three lecture hours per week.
Requisites: Prerequisites, BIOL 202 and 205; permission of the instructor for students lacking the prerequisites.
Grading status: Letter grade.

BIOL 441. Vertebrate Embryology. 3 Credits.

Principles of development with special emphasis on gametogenesis, fertilization, cleavage, germ layer formation, organogenesis, and mechanisms, with experimental analysis of developmental processes. Three lecture hours a week.
Requisites: Prerequisite, BIOL 205 or 252; permission of the instructor for students lacking the prerequisite.
Grading status: Letter grade.

BIOL 441L. Vertebrate Embryology Laboratory. 1 Credit.

Descriptive and some experimental aspects of vertebrate development. Three laboratory hours a week.
Requisites: Pre- or corequisite, BIOL 441.
Grading status: Letter grade.

BIOL 443. Developmental Biology. 3 Credits.

An experimental approach to an understanding of animals and plants. The approach covers developmental processes, molecular, genetic, cell biological and biochemical techniques, with an emphasis on the molecules involved in development.
Requisites: Prerequisites, BIOL 205 and CHEM 261; permission of the instructor for students lacking the prerequisites.
Grading status: Letter grade.

BIOL 444. Molecular Basis of Disease. 3 Credits.

This course investigates the biological causes behind human diseases via critical thinking and analysis of experimental research outcomes. It approaches topics from a research perspective similar to a graduate seminar. Topics covered include genetic/inherited diseases, metabolic diseases, immunological disorders, infectious diseases, cancer, cardiovascular diseases, and neurological diseases.
Requisites: Prerequisite, BIOL 205.
Grading status: Letter grade.

BIOL 445. Cancer Biology. 3 Credits.

Selected examples will be used to illustrate how basic research allows us to understand the mechanistic basis of cancer and how these insights offer hope for new treatments.
Requisites: Prerequisites, BIOL 202 and 205.
Grading status: Letter grade.

BIOL 446. Unsolved Problems in Cellular Biology. 3 Credits.

A survey of areas of current interest in cytology, embryology, and genetics with concentration on problems that remain unsolved but that appear to be near solution. Three lecture and discussion hours a week.
Requisites: Prerequisite, BIOL 205; permission of the instructor for students lacking the prerequisite.
Grading status: Letter grade.

BIOL 447. Cell Biology: Beyond Core Basics. 1 Credit.

Modern methods in cell biology.
Requisites: Prerequisite, BIOL 205; co-requisite, BIOL 447L; Required preparation, a grade of C+ or better in BIOL 205.
Grading status: Letter grade.

BIOL 447L. Cell Biology: Beyond Core Basics Laboratory. 3 Credits.

Modern methods in cell biology lab.
Requisites: Prerequisite, BIOL 205; co-requisite, BIOL 447; Required preparation, a grade of C+ or better in BIOL 205.
Grading status: Letter grade.

BIOL 448. Advanced Cell Biology. 3 Credits.

An advanced course in cell biology, with emphasis on the biochemistry and molecular biology of cell structure and function. Three lecture hours a week.
Requisites: Prerequisite, BIOL 205; permission of the instructor for students lacking the prerequisite.
Grading status: Letter grade.

BIOL 449. Introduction to Immunology. 3 Credits.

This course provides a general overview of the evolution, organization, and function of the immune system. Instruction will be inquiry-based with extensive use of informational and instructional technology tools.
Requisites: Prerequisite, BIOL 205; permission of the instructor for students lacking the prerequisite.
Grading status: Letter grade
Same as: MCRO 449.

BIOL 450. Introduction to Neurobiology. 3 Credits.

Recommended preparation, BIOL 205. Survey of neurobiological principles in vertebrates and invertebrates, including development, morphology, physiology, and molecular mechanisms. Three lectures a week.
Grading status: Letter grade.

BIOL 451. Comparative Physiology. 3 Credits.

An examination of the physiology of animals using a comparative approach. Both invertebrate and vertebrate animals are discussed in order to elucidate general principles.
Requisites: Prerequisites, BIOL 101 and 101L, and either PHYS 104 or 116 and either PHYS 105 or 117.
Grading status: Letter grade.

BIOL 451L. Comparative Physiology Laboratory. 1 Credit.

The fundamental principles of physiology are explored using physical models, animal experiments, and non invasive experiments on humans, reinforcing the understanding of concepts presented in lecture.
Requisites: Pre- or corequisite, BIOL 451.
Grading status: Letter grade.

BIOL 453. Animal Societies and Communication. 3 Credits.

Permission of the instructor for students lacking the requisites. Comparative review of animal societies; diversity of social structure, social dynamics, communication, ecology, and evolution of social organization. Three lecture hours a week.
Requisites: Pre- or corequisite, BIOL 278;
Grading status: Letter grade.

BIOL 454. Evolutionary Genetics. 3 Credits.

The roles of mutation, migration, genetic drift, and natural selection in the evolution of the genotype and phenotype. Basic principles are applied to biological studies. Three lecture hours a week.
Requisites: Prerequisites, BIOL 201 and 202; permission of the instructor for students lacking the prerequisites.
Grading status: Letter grade.

BIOL 455. Behavioral Neuroscience. 3 Credits.

The neurobiological basis of animal behavior at the level of single cells, neural circuits, sensory systems, and organisms. Lecture topics range from principles of cellular neurobiology to ethological field studies.
Requisites: Prerequisite, BIOL 205; Permission of the instructor for students lacking the prerequisite.
Grading status: Letter grade.

BIOL 457. Marine Biology. 3 Credits.

Recommended preparation, BIOL 201 or 475. A survey of plants and animals that live in the sea: characteristics of marine habitats, organisms, and the ecosystems will be emphasized. Marine environment, the organisms involved, and the ecological systems that sustain them.
Gen Ed: PL.
Grading status: Letter grade
Same as: MASC 442.

BIOL 458. Sensory Neurobiology and Behavior. 3 Credits.

Recommended preparation, BIOL 205. An exploration of sensory systems and sensory ecology in animals. Topics range from neurophysiological function of sensory receptors to the role of sensory cues in animal behavior.
Grading status: Letter grade.

BIOL 459. Field Biology at Highlands Biological Station. 1-4 Credits.

Content varies. Summer field biology at the Highlands Biological Station focuses on the special faunal and floristic processes and patterns characteristic of the southern Appalachian mountains. Five lecture and three to five laboratory and field hours per week, depending on credit.
Requisites: Prerequisite, BIOL 101; permission of the instructor for students lacking the prerequisite.
Repeat rules: May be repeated for credit; may be repeated in the same term for different topics; 8 total credits. 2 total completions.
Grading status: Letter grade.

BIOL 461. Fundamentals of Ecology. 4 Credits.

Students will develop a comprehensive understanding of the field of ecology, including modern and emerging trends in ecology. They will develop literacy in the fundamental theories and models that capture ecological processes; emphasis will also be placed on the relevance of ecology and ecological research for human society.
Requisites: Prerequisite, BIOL 201.
Grading status: Letter grade
Same as: ENEC 461.

BIOL 462. Marine Ecology. 3 Credits.

Survey of the ecological processes that structure marine communities in a range of coastal habitats. Course emphasizes experimental approaches to addressing basic and applied problems in marine systems.
Requisites: Prerequisite, BIOL 201 or 475.
Gen Ed: PL.
Grading status: Letter grade
Same as: MASC 440.

BIOL 463. Field Ecology. 4 Credits.

Application of ecological theory to terrestrial and/or freshwater systems. Lectures emphasize quantitative properties of interacting population and communities within these systems. Required laboratory teaches methodology applicable for analysis of these systems. Projects emphasize experimental testing of ecological theory in the field. Two lecture and six field hours a week.
Requisites: Prerequisite, BIOL 201.
Gen Ed: EE-Field Work.
Grading status: Letter grade.

BIOL 464. Global Change Ecology. 3 Credits.

Responses of plants, animals, and communities to climate and other global changes, emphasizing ecology, physiology, behavior, and evolution. Investigation of past responses and tools for predicting future responses.
Requisites: Prerequisite, BIOL 201.
Grading status: Letter grade.

BIOL 465. Global Biodiversity and Macroecology. 3 Credits.

We will explore global patterns of diversity of plants, animals, fungi, and microbes, and the insights gained by taking a statistical approach to describing these and other broad-scale ecological patterns.
Requisites: Prerequisite, BIOL 201; permission of the instructor for students lacking the prerequisite.
Grading status: Letter grade.

BIOL 469. Behavioral Ecology. 3 Credits.

BIOL 278 recommended but not required and can be taken concurrently. Behavior as an adaptation to the environment. Evolution of behavioral strategies for survival and reproduction. Optimality and games that animals play. Three lecture hours a week. .
Requisites: Prerequisite, BIOL 201.
Grading status: Letter grade.

BIOL 471. Evolutionary Mechanisms. 3 Credits.

Introduction to mechanisms of evolutionary change, including natural selection, population genetics, life history evolution, speciation, and micro- and macroevolutionary trends. Three lecture hours a week.
Requisites: Prerequisites, BIOL 201 and 202; Corequisite, BIOL 471L; Permission of the instructor for students lacking the prerequisites.
Grading status: Letter grade.

BIOL 471L. Evolutionary Mechanisms Laboratory. 1 Credit.

Introduction to mechanisms of evolutionary change, including natural selection, population genetics, life history evolution, speciation, and micro- and macroevolutionary trends. Three laboratory hours a week.
Requisites: Prerequisites, BIOL 201 and 202; Corequisite, BIOL 471; Permission of the instructor for students lacking the requisites.
Grading status: Letter grade.

BIOL 472. Introduction to Plant Taxonomy. 4 Credits.

Introduction to the taxonomy of vascular plants. Principles of classification, identification, nomenclature, and description. Laboratory and field emphasis on phytography, families, description, identification, and classification of vascular plant species. Three lecture and three laboratory hours a week.
Requisites: Prerequisites, BIOL 271 and/or 272; permission of the instructor for students lacking the prerequisites.
Grading status: Letter grade.

BIOL 473L. Mammalian Morphology Laboratory. 1-2 Credits.

Prerequisities, BIOL 252 or 474L. Laboratory includes a detailed dissection of a representative mammal, emphasizing the common structure of mammals. Opportunity for independent investigation of specific functional adaptations of specialized forms.
Grading status: Letter grade.

BIOL 473. Mammalian Morphology and Adaptation. 3 Credits.

An in-depth examination of the morphological adaptations of mammals. Particular attention will be given to osteology, the locomotor system, and craniofacial structures.
Requisites: Prerequisites, BIOL 252 or 474.
Grading status: Letter grade.

BIOL 474. Evolution of Vertebrate Life. 3 Credits.

Evolutionary history of the vertebrates. Emphasis on anatomical, physiological, behavioral adaptations accompanying major transitions: the move from water to land, the development of complex integrating systems. Honors version available
Requisites: Prerequisite, BIOL 201 or 202; permission of the instructor for students lacking the prerequisite.
Gen Ed: PL.
Grading status: Letter grade.

BIOL 474L. Vertebrate Structure and Evolution Laboratory. 1 Credit.

Vertebrate comparative anatomy of organ systems and their evolution with emphasis on human anatomy. Three laboratory hours a week.
Requisites: Pre- or corequisite, BIOL 474.
Grading status: Letter grade.

BIOL 475. Biology of Marine Animals. 4 Credits.

Required preparation, one additional course in biology. An introduction to the major animal phyla emphasizing form, function, behavior, ecology, evolution, and classification of marine invertebrates. Three lecture and three laboratory hours per week.
Requisites: Prerequisites, BIOL 101 and 101L.
Grading status: Letter grade.

BIOL 476. Avian Biology. 3 Credits.

A study of avian evolution, anatomy, physiology, neurobiology, behavior, biogeography, and ecology. Three lecture hours a week.
Requisites: Prerequisites, BIOL 101 and 101L; corequisite, BIOL 476L.
Grading status: Letter grade.

BIOL 476L. Avian Biology Laboratory. 1 Credit.

Techniques for the study of avian evolution, ecology, and behavior with emphasis on North Carolina birds. Three laboratory or field hours a week, including one or two weekend field trips.
Requisites: Corequisite, BIOL 476.
Grading status: Letter grade.

BIOL 478. Invertebrate Paleontology. 4 Credits.

Introduction to the principles, methods of analysis, and major controversies within paleontology. Examination of the fossil record and its application to problems in evolutionary biology, paleoecology, paleoclimatology, and general earth history.
Requisites: Prerequisite, GEOL 159 or BIOL 101; permission of the instructor for students lacking the prerequisites.
Gen Ed: PX.
Grading status: Letter grade
Same as: GEOL 478.

BIOL 479. Topics in Organismal Biology at an Advanced Level. 3 Credits.

Topics in organismal biology at an advanced undergraduate or graduate student level.
Grading status: Letter grade.

BIOL 479L. Laboratory in Organismal Biology: Advanced Topics. 1-2 Credits.

Laboratory in topics in organismal biology for advanced undergraduates and graduate students.
Grading status: Letter grade.

BIOL 490. Advanced Topics in Biology. 3 Credits.

Permission of the instructor. Content will vary. Three lecture and discussion hours per week by visiting and resident faculty. Honors version available
Repeat rules: May be repeated for credit. 12 total credits. 4 total completions.
Grading status: Letter grade.

BIOL 495. Undergraduate Research in Biology. 1-3 Credits.

Permission of the instructor. Majors only. An overall 3.0 grade point average required. Laboratory study on a selected topic and directed readings. A final written report is required each term. May be repeated. This course is offered for pass/fail credit only. Honors version available
Requisites: Prerequisite, BIOL 395.
Repeat rules: May be repeated for credit. 12 total credits. 4 total completions.
Grading status: Pass/Fail.

BIOL 501. Ethical Issues in Life Sciences. 3 Credits.

Permission of the instructor. A consideration and discussion of ethical issues in life sciences including cloning humans, genetic engineering, stem cell research, organ transplantation, and animal experimentation. Counts as a course numbered below 400 for biology major requirements.
Grading status: Letter grade.

BIOL 514. Evolution and Development. 3 Credits.

The course examines the mechanisms by which organisms are built and evolve. In particular, it examines how novel and complex traits and organisms arise from interactions among genes and cells. Honors version available
Requisites: Prerequisites, BIOL 201, 202, and 205; permission of the instructor for students lacking the prerequisites.
Grading status: Letter grade.

BIOL 522. Bacterial Genetics. 3 Credits.

Genetics of eubacteria with emphasis on molecular genetics including regulation of gene expression, transposons, operons, regulons, plasmids, transformation, and conjugation. Computer analysis of DNA sequences.
Requisites: Prerequisite, BIOL 422; Permission of the instructor for students lacking the prerequisite.
Gen Ed: CI.
Grading status: Letter grade.

BIOL 524. Strategies of Host-Microbe Interactions. 3 Credits.

There is great variety in how microbes colonize and live with their hosts. The course will summarize strategies of pathogenicity, symbiosis, commensalism and mutualism. Evolutionary, cellular, and molecular aspects will be analyzed.
Requisites: Prerequisite, BIOL 205; Permission of the instructor for students lacking the prerequisite.
Gen Ed: CI.
Grading status: Letter grade.

BIOL 525. Computational Analyses and Resources in Genomics. 3 Credits.

Practical introduction to computational techniques for the analysis of large-scale genomics data, particularly from high-throughput sequencing technologies. Basic knowledge of molecular biology, beginning level programming skills, and familiarity with basic statistical concepts are expected. Three lecture hours a week.
Requisites: Prerequisites, BIOL 202, COMP 116, and STOR 155; corequisite, BIOL 525L.
Grading status: Letter grade.

BIOL 525L. Computational Analyses and Resources in Genomics Laboratory. 1 Credit.

Computer lab will provide students with experience designing, programming, and using computational analysis software for genomics applications. Basic knowledge of molecular biology, beginning level programming skills, and familiarity with basic statistical concepts are expected. Three laboratory hours a week.
Requisites: Prerequisites, BIOL 202, COMP 116, and STOR 155; corequisite, BIOL 525.
Grading status: Letter grade.

BIOL 526. Computational Genetics. 4 Credits.

Permission of the instructor for students lacking the prerequisites. Graduate enrollment allowed with permission of the instructor. Introduction to computational principles underlying sequence alignment and phylogenetics, genome assembly and annotation, analysis of gene function, and other bioinformatics applications. Includes a one-hour computer laboratory. Honors version available
Requisites: Pre- or corequisites, BIOL 202, and either BIOL 226 or COMP 116, and STOR 155;
Grading status: Letter grade.

BIOL 527. Seminar in Quantitative Biology. 3 Credits.

Seminar in quantitative biology for advanced students. The course counts as a quantitative biology course for the major.
Requisites: Prerequisites, COMP 114, and MATH 232 or 283; Permission of the instructor for students lacking the prerequisites.
Repeat rules: May be repeated for credit; may be repeated in the same term for different topics; 12 total credits. 4 total completions.
Grading status: Letter grade.

BIOL 527L. Laboratory in Quantitative Biology. 1 Credit.

Laboratory in quantitative biology for advanced students. The laboratory will involve mathematical analysis and modeling of biological systems and processes.
Repeat rules: May be repeated for credit. 4 total credits. 4 total completions.
Grading status: Letter grade.

BIOL 528. Systems Biology of Genetic Regulation. 3 Credits.

The course will focus on mathematical and informatics approaches to modeling biological systems in particular gene networks. Students are expected to have some experience with programming.
Requisites: prerequisites, BIOL 202, and either BIOL 226 or COMP 116, and either MATH 232 or 283. Co-requisite, BIOL 528L;
Grading status: Letter grade.

BIOL 528L. Systems Biology of Genetic Regulation Laboratory. 1 Credit.

The lab will focus on mathematical and informatics approaches to modeling biological systems in particular gene networks. Students are expected to have some experience with programming.
Requisites: prerequisites, BIOL 202, and either BIOL 226 or COMP 116, and either MATH 232 or 283. Co-requisite, BIOL 528;
Grading status: Letter grade.

BIOL 529. Clinical and Counseling Aspects of Human Genetics. 3 Credits.

Topics in clinical genetics including pedigree analysis, counseling/ethical issues, genetic testing, screening, and issues in human research. Taught in a small group format. Active student participation is expected.
Requisites: Prerequisite, BIOL 425 or GNET 634; Permission of the instructor.
Grading status: Letter grade
Same as: GNET 635.

BIOL 532. Recent Discoveries in Molecular Biology. 3 Credits.

This course examines recent insights into molecular and cellular processes obtained through modern experimental approaches. Extensive reading of primary literature, discussed in a seminar format.
Requisites: Prerequisites, BIOL 202, and either BIOL 205 or a 400-level BIOL course; Permission of the instructor for students lacking the prerequisites.
Grading status: Letter grade.

BIOL 534. Mathematical Modeling in the Life Sciences. 3 Credits.

Requires some knowledge of computer programming. Model validation and numerical simulations using ordinary, partial, stochastic, and delay differential equations. Applications to the life sciences may include muscle physiology, biological fluid dynamics, neurobiology, molecular regulatory networks, and cell biology.
Requisites: Prerequisite, MATH 383.
Gen Ed: QI.
Grading status: Letter grade
Same as: MATH 564.

BIOL 535. Molecular Biology Techniques. 4 Credits.

Permission of the instructor. Recommended preparation, BIOL 434. Experiments with bacterial phage, nucleic acid isolation and properties, recombinant DNA techniques, and DNA sequencing. Additional hours in laboratory will be necessary to complete assignments.
Grading status: Letter grade.

BIOL 537. Biotechnology and Synthetic Biology. 3 Credits.

Recent advances in biotechnology and synthetic biology, and their potential relevance to medicine, agriculture, and engineering. The course will include lectures, reading and discussions of papers from the primary literature, and student projects and presentations.
Requisites: Prerequisite, BIOL 202.
Grading status: Letter grade.

BIOL 542. Light Microscopy for the Biological Sciences. 3 Credits.

Permission of the instructor. Introduction to various types of light microscopy, digital and video imaging techniques, and their application in biological sciences.
Requisites: Prerequisite, BIOL 205 for undergraduates.
Grading status: Letter grade.

BIOL 551. Comparative Biomechanics. 3 Credits.

Recommended preparation, PHYS 105. The structure and function of organisms in relation to the principles of fluid mechanics and solid mechanics.
Requisites: Prerequisites, BIOL 101 and 101L, and PHYS 104 or PHYS 116.
Grading status: Letter grade.

BIOL 552. Behavioral Endocrinology. 3 Credits.

Undergraduates need permission of the instructor to enroll. The study of the interactions among hormones, the brain, and behavior from how hormones shape the development and expression of behaviors to how behavioral interactions regulate endocrine physiology.
Grading status: Letter grade.

BIOL 553. Mathematical and Computational Models in Biology. 3 Credits.

This course introduces analytical, computational, and statistical techniques, such as discrete models, numerical integration of ordinary differential equations, and likelihood functions, to explore various fields of biology.
Requisites: Prerequisites, BIOL 201 and 202, MATH 231, and either MATH 232 or STOR 155; Co-requisite, BIOL 553L/MATH 553L; permission of the instructor for students lacking the requisites.
Gen Ed: QI.
Grading status: Letter grade
Same as: MATH 553.

BIOL 553L. Mathematical and Computational Models in Biology Laboratory. 1 Credit.

This lab introduces analytical, computational, and statistical techniques, such as discrete models, numerical integration of ordinary differential equations, and likelihood functions, to explore various fields of biology.
Requisites: Prerequisites, BIOL 201 and 202, MATH 231, and either MATH 232 or STOR 155; Co-requisite, BIOL 553/MATH 553; Permission of the instructor for students lacking the prerequisites.
Grading status: Letter grade
Same as: MATH 553L.

BIOL 555. Paleobotany: An Introduction to the Past History of Plants. 3 Credits.

An introduction to the fossil record of plants, investigating how plants originated and changed through geological time to produce the modern flora. Both macrofossils and microfossils will be considered. Three lecture hours a week.
Requisites: Prerequisites, BIOL 202, and one other BIOL course above 200; corequisite, BIOL 555L; permission of the instructor for students lacking the requisites.
Gen Ed: EE-Field Work.
Grading status: Letter grade
Same as: GEOL 555.

BIOL 555L. Paleobotany: An Introduction to the Past History of Plants Laboratory. 1 Credit.

The laboratory involves learning how to locate, collect, prepare, and analyze fossil plants; it also provides fossils that illustrate topics covered in lecture. Students will be involved in field trips to fossil sites and museums to learn about fossil curation and display of fossils for public education. Three laboratory hours a week.
Requisites: Prerequisites, BIOL 202 and one other BIOL course above 200; corequisite, BIOL 555.
Grading status: Letter grade.

BIOL 556. Seminar on the Evolution of Animal Flight. 3 Credits.

Additional required preparation, a 400-level BIOL course or permission of the instructor. An examination of the origin and evolution of animal flight and how scientific understanding of this topic has changed from the mid-1800s to the present day.
Requisites: Prerequisites, BIOL 201 and PHYS 104 or 116.
Grading status: Letter grade.

BIOL 561. Ecological Plant Geography. 3 Credits.

Description of the major vegetation types of the world including their distribution, structure, and dynamics. The principal causes for the distribution of plant species and communities, such as climate, soils, and history will be discussed.
Requisites: Prerequisite, BIOL 101 or GEOG 110; Permission of the instructor for students lacking the prerequisite.
Grading status: Letter grade.

BIOL 562. Statistics for Environmental Scientists. 4 Credits.

Introduction to the application of quantitative and statistical methods in environmental science, including environmental monitoring, assessment, threshold exceedance, risk assessment, and environmental decision making.
Requisites: Prerequisite, STOR 155.
Grading status: Letter grade
Same as: ENEC 562.

BIOL 563. Statistical Analysis in Ecology and Evolution. 4 Credits.

Application of modern statistical analysis and data modeling in ecological and evolutionary research. Emphasis is on computer-intensive methods and model-based approaches. Familiarity with standard parametic statistics is assumed.
Requisites: Prerequisites, MATH 231 and STOR 151; Permission of the instructor for students lacking the prerequisites.
Grading status: Letter grade
Same as: ENEC 563.

BIOL 565. Conservation Biology. 3 Credits.

The application of biological science to the conservation of populations, communities, and ecosystems, including rare species management, exotic species invasions, management of natural disturbance, research strategies, and preserve design principles. Honors version available
Requisites: Prerequisite, BIOL 201; Permission of the instructor for students lacking the prerequisite.
Grading status: Letter grade.

BIOL 567. Evolutionary Ecology. 3 Credits.

Advanced consideration of the evolution of form and function. May include issues in life-history evolution, evolutionary physiology, evolutionary morphology, and the evolution of complexity. Three lecture hours per week.
Requisites: Prerequisite, BIOL 471; Permission of the instructor for students lacking the prerequisite.
Grading status: Letter grade.

BIOL 568. Disease Ecology and Evolution. 3 Credits.

Recommended preparation, one course above 400 in ecology or evolution. An advanced class covering the causes and consequences of infectious disease at the levels of whole organisms, populations, communities, and ecosystems.
Requisites: Prerequisites, BIOL 201 and MATH 231; Permission of the instructor for students lacking the prerequisites.
Grading status: Letter grade.

BIOL 579. Organismal Structure and Diversity in the Southern Appalachian Mountains. 4 Credits.

Permission of the instructor. An examination of the field biology of selected fungi, plants, or animals of the Appalachian Mountains. The morphology, taxonomy, ecology, life history, and behavior of the organisms will be explored both in the laboratory and in the field.
Grading status: Letter grade.

BIOL 590. Advanced Special Topics in Biology. 3 Credits.

Special topics in biology for advanced undergraduate students and graduate students.
Repeat rules: May be repeated for credit. 12 total credits. 4 total completions.
Grading status: Letter grade.

BIOL 590L. Laboratory in Advanced Special Topics in Biology. 1 Credit.

Laboratory at an advanced level in special topics in biology. Students should have had considerable previous laboratory experience.
Repeat rules: May be repeated for credit. 2 total credits. 2 total completions.
Grading status: Letter grade.

BIOL 602. Professional Development Skills for Ecologists and Biologists. 3 Credits.

The goal of this course is to help students who intend to become professional ecologists or biologists acquire critical skills and strategies needed for achieving their career goals.
Grading status: Letter grade
Same as: ENEC 602.

BIOL 604. Laboratory Practices for New Investigators. 1 Credit.

Required preparation, participation in an ongoing laboratory research project. Permission of the instructor. A seminar course designed to introduce students to approaches and methods needed in carrying out an independent research project in a particular focus area of biology. For advanced undergraduates and graduate students.
Repeat rules: May be repeated for credit. 2 total credits. 2 total completions.
Grading status: Letter grade.

BIOL 605. Reading and Writing Scientific Literature. 1 Credit.

A seminar course designed to introduce students to how to read and write scientific papers. For advanced undergraduates and graduate students.
Requisites: Prerequisite, BIOL 201 or 202.
Repeat rules: May be repeated for credit. 2 total credits. 2 total completions.
Grading status: Letter grade.

BIOL 621. Principles of Genetic Analysis I. 3 Credits.

Prerequisite for undergraduates, BIOL 202. Permission of the instructor for undergraduates. Genetic principles of genetic analysis in prokaryotes and lower eukaryotes.
Grading status: Letter grade
Same as: GNET 621.

BIOL 622. Principles of Genetic Analysis II. 4 Credits.

Principles of genetic analysis in higher eukaryotes; genomics.
Requisites: Prerequisite, BIOL 621.
Grading status: Letter grade
Same as: GNET 622.

BIOL 624. Developmental Genetics. 3 Credits.

Permission of the instructor for undergraduates. Genetic and molecular control of plant and animal development. Extensive reading from primary literature.
Grading status: Letter grade
Same as: GNET 624.

BIOL 625. Seminar in Genetics. 2 Credits.

Permission of the instructor for undergraduates. Current and significant problems in genetics. May be repeated for credit.
Repeat rules: May be repeated for credit; may be repeated in the same term for different topics; 12 total credits. 6 total completions.
Grading status: Letter grade
Same as: GNET 625.

BIOL 631. Advanced Molecular Biology I. 3 Credits.

Required preparation for undergraduates, at least one undergraduate course in both biochemistry and genetics. DNA structure, function, and interactions in prokaryotic and eukaryotic systems, including chromosome structure, replication, recombination, repair, and genome fluidity. Three lecture hours a week.
Grading status: Letter grade
Same as: GNET 631, BIOC 631, MCRO 631.

BIOL 632. Advanced Molecular Biology II. 3 Credits.

Required preparation for undergraduates, at least one undergraduate course in both biochemistry and genetics. The purpose of this course is to provide historical, basic, and current information about the flow and regulation of genetic information from DNA to RNA in a variety of biological systems. Three lecture hours a week.
Grading status: Letter grade
Same as: GNET 632, BIOC 632, MCRO 632.

BIOL 639. Seminar in Plant Molecular and Cell Biology. 1 Credit.

Permission of the instructor. May be repeated for credit. Current and significant problems in plant molecular and cell biology are discussed in a seminar format. Can count as BIOL elective credit in the major if combined with other 600-level courses for a total of three credit hours.
Repeat rules: May be repeated for credit; may be repeated in the same term for different topics; 12 total credits. 12 total completions.
Grading status: Letter grade.

BIOL 642. Advanced Studies of Cell Division. 3 Credits.

An advanced course in cell and molecular biology integrating genetic, biochemical, and structural aspects of the cell cycle. Principles derived from a variety of biological systems. Extensive reading of classic papers as well as recent literature.
Requisites: Prerequisite, BIOL 205; permission of the instructor for students lacking the prerequisite.
Grading status: Letter grade.

BIOL 643. Molecular Mechanisms of the Cytoskeleton. 3 Credits.

This seminar examines the cytoskeletal systems of eukaryotes and prokaryotes via primary literature. Architectures of cytoskeletal components are compared and contrasted along with their regulators, nucleators, and molecular motors.
Requisites: Prerequisites, BIOL 205 and CHEM 430; permission of the instructor for students lacking the prerequisites.
Grading status: Letter grade.

BIOL 648. Palynology. 5 Credits.

Permission of the instructor. A consideration of various aspects of palynology, including the morphology, structure, development, systematics, evolution, preparation techniques, and analysis of living and fossil pollen grains, spores, and other palynomorphs. Two lecture and six laboratory hours a week.
Grading status: Letter grade.

BIOL 649. Seminar in Cell Biology. 2 Credits.

May be repeated for credit. Can count as BIOL elective credit in the major if combined with other 600-level courses for a total of three credit hours.
Requisites: Prerequisite, BIOL 205; permission of the instructor for students lacking the prerequisite.
Repeat rules: May be repeated for credit; may be repeated in the same term for different topics; 12 total credits. 6 total completions.
Grading status: Letter grade.

BIOL 657. Biological Oceanography. 4 Credits.

For graduate students; undergraduates need permission of the instructor. Marine ecosystem processes pertaining to the structure, function, and ecological interactions of biological communities; management of biological resources; taxonomy and natural history of pelagic and benthic marine organisms. Three lecture and one recitation hours per week. Two mandatory weekend fieldtrips.
Gen Ed: PL.
Grading status: Letter grade
Same as: MASC 504, ENVR 520.

BIOL 659. Seminar in Evolutionary Biology. 2 Credits.

Permission of the instructor. Advanced studies in evolutionary biology. Can count as BIOL elective credit in the major if combined with other 600-level courses for a total of three credit hours.
Repeat rules: May be repeated for credit; may be repeated in the same term for different topics; 12 total credits. 6 total completions.
Grading status: Letter grade.

BIOL 661. Plant Ecology. 4 Credits.

Consideration of terrestrial, vascular plant ecology including environmental physiology, population dynamics, and community structure. Laboratory stresses collection and interpretation of field data. Three lecture and three laboratory hours a week.
Requisites: Prerequisite, BIOL 201.
Gen Ed: EE-Field Work.
Grading status: Letter grade.

BIOL 662. Field Plant Geography. 2 Credits.

Intensive literature and field study of the plant geography and ecology of a selected region. Weekly seminar-style discussion followed by approximately nine days' field experience. May be repeated for credit.
Requisites: Prerequisites, BIOL 661 or 561 and permission of the instructor.
Grading status: Letter grade.

BIOL 669. Seminar in Ecology. 1-3 Credits.

May be repeated for credit.
Requisites: Prerequisite, BIOL 201; permission of the instructor for students lacking the prerequisite.
Repeat rules: May be repeated for credit; may be repeated in the same term for different topics; 12 total credits. 12 total completions.
Grading status: Letter grade
Same as: ENEC 669.

BIOL 680. Advanced Seminar in Recent Biological Research and Methods. 1 Credit.

Permission of the instructor. The course will cover topics and experimental approaches of current interest. Students will learn intellectual and practical aspects of cutting-edge topics in biology. It will meet for one hour per week, in a lecture and discussion format.
Repeat rules: May be repeated for credit. 3 total credits. 3 total completions.
Grading status: Letter grade.

BIOL 690. Advanced Special Topics with an Emphasis on Recent Research. 3 Credits.

Permission of the instructor. Special topics in biology with an emphasis on recent research. For advanced undergraduates and graduate students.
Repeat rules: May be repeated for credit. 6 total credits. 2 total completions.
Grading status: Letter grade.

BIOL 692H. Senior Honors Thesis in Biology. 3 Credits.

Permission of a faculty research director and three credit hours of BIOL 395 in the same laboratory required. Must be taken in the final semester of senior year. Fall and spring only.
Gen Ed: CI, EE-Mentored Research.
Grading status: Letter grade.