Curriculum for the Environment and Ecology (GRAD)

Curriculum for the Environment and Ecology

http://www.cee.unc.edu

Jaye E. Cable, Chair

Michael F. Piehler, Director of Graduate Studies and Graduate Admissions

The Curriculum for the Environment and Ecology is a multidisciplinary, degree-granting program that seeks to foster an understanding and appreciation of ecological systems and to demonstrate the value of ecological approaches to the solution of current and future environmental problems. With the participation of faculty and students from many disciplines and departments, emphasis is placed on interdisciplinary activities that explicitly consider the complexity of the environment and integrated approaches to problem identification and solution. In particular, it seeks to foster an understanding and appreciation of ecological systems, human and nonhuman, and to demonstrate the value of ecological approaches to the solution of current and future environmental problems.

Current faculty come from the departments of anthropology, biology, biostatistics, city and regional planning, communication, environmental sciences and engineering, geography, geological sciences, marine sciences, public policy, and sociology. Whereas degree programs with a strong ecology component may be arranged in other departments, by combining many approaches and methods and by linking the social and natural sciences the curriculum explicitly considers the complexity of the environment and the need for integrated approaches to problem identification and solution.  Using the resources of many departments, the Curriculum for the Environment and Ecology provides both broad and specialized training in ecology, human ecology, and the study of environmental systems. Graduate degrees available in the curriculum are the master of science, the master of arts, and the doctor of philosophy. Applications will be accepted from persons with varied backgrounds and goals, with the specific program of study and research tailored to the needs of the individual.

Requirements for Admission

For admission to the Curriculum for the Environment and Ecology, an undergraduate degree is required in a natural science such as physics, chemistry, biology, bacteriology, botany, zoology, or geology; a social science such as anthropology, sociology, or economics; a mathematical area such as statistics, mathematics, or systems analysis; an engineering area; or environmental science. The deadline for a completed application in order for students to be considered for fall admission is in January. However, students must submit all curriculum and Graduate School admission materials by December if they wish to be considered for campus fellowships and other forms of graduate appointments. Late applications will cause students to miss out on some opportunities. Detailed information is available on both the curriculum's Web site and The Graduate School's admissions Web site.

Every student must gain an understanding of the breadth and depth of the field of ecology as it is treated among various traditional disciplines. This is accomplished in two ways: first, through the ENEC 567 and ENEC 569 course sequence; and second, through the composition of the student's advisory committee. Students are required to do their best to establish state residency in their first year and must apply for state residency after their first year in order to be considered for tuition remission in subsequent years.

Doctor of Philosophy

Each ecology Ph.D. student, in addition to taking ENEC 567 and ENEC 569, must register for ENEC 994 at least once for three hours credit. There are no other course requirements for the Ph.D. except for those designated by the student's graduate advisory committee and as long as the student meets the credit hour requirements of The UNC Graduate School.

Owing to the diversity of research methods and approaches within the field of ecology, the curriculum has no explicit research skill course requirements for graduate degrees. The student's graduate advisory committee is responsible for seeing that the student has gained the proficiencies expected of a degree candidate in the student's selected area of expertise.

Master's Degrees

Two ecology master's degrees are offered by the curriculum: the master of science degree requiring independent research and a thesis, and the master of arts degree requiring a thesis question and literature research review. All master's degrees are terminal degrees at UNC–Chapel Hill. Master's students must request readmission for Ph.D. work following completion of all requirements for the master's degree.

Master of Science

The master of science course requirements are determined by the student's advisory committee. They must include a minimum of 30 hours of graduate credit (of which no less than 24 hours must be earned in courses, and at least three hours in research), and completion of the thesis. One semester of registration is required in ENEC 567 and ENEC 569, and M.S. students must register for three hours of ENEC 993.

Master of Arts

Requirements for the master of arts are the same as those for the master of science, except a master of arts paper is prepared (ENEC 992) in place of a master's thesis (ENEC 993).

Adjunct Professors

Carol Arnosti, Carbon Cycling in the Ocean, Organic Marine Geochemistry
Lawrence E. Band, Watershed Hydrology, Ecosystem Water, Carbon and Nutrient Cycling
Larry K. Benninger, Low-Temperature Geochemistry
John F. Bruno, Ecology and Conservation of Marine Communities
Jaye Cable, Marine Sciences, Chemical Oceanography
Richard E. Bilsborrow, Economic Demography, Population, Development and the Environment
Michael Emch, Medical Geography, Epidemiology
Barbara Entwisle, Social Demography, Population and Environment
Patricia Gensel, Paleobotany, Patterns of Evolutionary Change
Joel G. Kingsolver, Environmental Physiology, Functional Morphology, Population Ecology and Evolution
Paul W. Leslie, Human Ecology, Population Biology
Christopher S. Martens, Biogeochemistry
Charles Mitchell, Disease Ecology, Global Change, Biological Invasions
Rachel Noble, Environmental Microbiology, Marine Microbial Ecology
Hans Paerl, Microbial Ecology, Estuarine and Coastal Ecology, Water Quality Dynamics
Robert K. Peet, Plant Community and Population Ecology, Biogeography, Ecoinformatics
Charles H. Peterson, Marine Ecology, Population and Community Processes
David W. Pfennig, Evolutionary Ecology
Michael F. Piehler, Coastal Ecosystems and Human Health, Tracking Pathogens in Water
Maria Servedio, Evolutionary Ecology, Behavioral Ecology
Conghe Song, Remote Sensing of Vegetation, Ecological Modeling, Geographic Information Systems
Andreas P. Teske, Microbial Ecology, Evolution and Systematics
Stephen J. Walsh, Land Use and Land Cover Dynamics, Spatial Modeling and Analysis
Stephen C. Whalen, Nutrient Cycling, Greenhouse Gas Production and Dynamics
Peter S. White, Plant Population and Community Ecology, Conservation Biology

Adjunct Associate Professors

Marc Alperin, Carbon Cycling in Coastal Sediments, Global Carbon Budgets
Todd Bendor, Computer Modeling in Human Ecological Impacts, Land Use and Environmental Planning
Joel Fodrie, Coastal Biological Oceanography
Clark Gray, Population Mobility and Environmental Change
Allen Hurlbert, Community Ecology, Biogeography, Avian Ecology
Pamela Jagger, Environmental Policy, Environment and Development, Sub-Saharan Africa
Nihkil Kaza, Urban Development, Energy Planning and Landscape
Charles E. Konrad, Synoptic Climatology and Climate Change
Aaron Moody, Remote Sensing, Landscape Ecology, Biogeography, Geographical Information Systems
Laura Moore, Large-Scale Geologic and Modern Evolution of Coastal Environments
Tamlin Pavelsky, World Hydrology, Remote Sensing
Karin S. Pfennig, Behavioral Ecology and Evolution, Speciation, Host-Parasite Interactions
Jill Stewart, Linkages between Ecosystems and Human Health, Tracking Pathogens in Water
Donna Surge, Paleoclimatology, Paleoecology, Low-Temperature Geochemistry
Alan Weakley, Plant Systematics, Floristics, Biogeography, Conservation Biology, Bioinformatics
Colin West, Human Ecology of Global Change, Ecological Anthropology
Erika Wise, Climatology and Endrochronology, Climate Variability
Jason West, Climate and Air Quality Modeling
Andrew J. Yates, Resource Economics, Environmental Markets

Adjunct Assistant Professors

Karl Castillo, Ecophysiology of Coral Reefs, Climate Change and Ocean Acidification Effects
Xiaodong Chen, Coupled Human-Natural Systems, Remote Sensing and GIS
Elizabeth Dickinson, Environmental Communication
Lindsay Dubbs, Ecological and Environmental Impacts on Energy Generation, Biogeochemistry
Adrian Marchetti, Ecophysiology and Molecular Biology of Marine Phytoplankton
Johanna Rosman, Coastal and Estuarine Physical Oceanography
Diego Riveros-Iregui, Watershed and Ecohydrology, Biogeochemistry
Alecia Septer, Microbial Ecology, Microbiology
James Umbanhowar, Theoretical Ecology, Dynamics of Species Interactions Webs, Host-Parasutoid Interactions

Faculty Emeriti

Richard N. Andrews, Environmental and Energy Policy, Policy Instruments and Incentives
Joe Carter, Invertebrate Paleontology
John W. Florin, Population Geography, Medical Geography
R. Haven Wiley, Behavioral Ecology of Vertebrates, Avian Social Behavior

ENEC

Advanced Undergraduate and Graduate-level Courses

ENEC 403. Environmental Chemistry Processes. 3 Credits.

Required preparation, a background in chemistry and mathematics, including ordinary differential equations. Chemical processes occurring in natural and engineered systems: chemical cycles; transport and transformation processes of chemicals in air, water, and multimedia environments; chemical dynamics; thermodynamics; structure/activity relationships.
Grading status: Letter grade
Same as: ENVR 403.

ENEC 405. Mountain Preservation. 4 Credits.

Introduces students to approaches used to preserve the natural and cultural heritage of the Southern Appalachians.
Grading status: Letter grade.

ENEC 406. Atmospheric Processes II. 4 Credits.

Principles of analysis of the atmosphere are applied to the analysis of environmental phenomena. The link between the atmosphere and other environmental compartments is explored through environmental case studies.

ENEC 410. Earth Processes in Environmental Systems. 4 Credits.

Principles of geological and related Earth systems sciences are applied to analyses of environmental phenomena. The link between the lithosphere and other environmental compartments is explored through case studies of environmental issues. Three lecture hours and one laboratory hour a week.
Requisites: Prerequisites, CHEM 102, GEOL 200, MATH 231, and PHYS 115 or 119; permission of the instructor for students lacking the prerequisites.
Grading status: Letter grade
Same as: GEOL 410, MASC 410.

ENEC 411. Oceanic Processes in Environmental Systems. 4 Credits.

Principles of analysis of the ocean, coast, and estuarine environments and the processes that control these environments are applied to the analysis of environmental phenomena. Case studies of environmental issues. Three lecture hours and one laboratory hour a week.
Requisites: Prerequisites, BIOL 101, CHEM 102, ENEC 222, MATH 231, PHYS 115 or 119; permission of the instructor for students lacking the prerequisites.
Grading status: Letter grade
Same as: GEOL 411, MASC 411.

ENEC 415. Environmental Systems Modeling. 3 Credits.

This course explores principles and strategies for studying environmental phenomena, and presents methods for developing explanatory and predictive models of environmental systems, e.g., predator-prey, estuaries, greenhouse gases, and ecosystem material cycles.
Requisites: Prerequisite, MATH 383; pre- or corequisite, PHYS 115 or 118, and COMP 116.
Grading status: Letter grade
Same as: GEOL 415, MASC 415.

ENEC 416. Environmental Meteorology. 3 Credits.

This course explores atmospheric processes most important to environmental problems such as the transport and transformation of air pollutants and weather systems involved in intercontinental transport of gases and particles.
Grading status: Letter grade.

ENEC 417. Geomorphology. 3 Credits.

Introduction to process geomorphology with emphasis on quantitative interpretation of weathering, hill slope, fluvial, glacial, and eolian processes from topography and landscapes.
Requisites: Prerequisites, GEOL 101, 200, or 201; and MATH 231; permission of the instructor for students lacking the prerequisites.
Grading status: Letter grade
Same as: GEOL 417.

ENEC 420. Community Design and Green Architecture. 3 Credits.

The impact of building on the environment and health will be examined by looking at the major areas of: land use planning, water resource use, energy, materials and indoor environment.
Grading status: Letter grade
Same as: PLAN 420.

ENEC 431. Sustainable Cities: Exploring Ways of Making Cities More Sustainable. 3 Credits.

Recommended preparation, ENEC 330. For the first time in history, a majority of the world's people live in cities with huge implications for sustainability. Students will examine the factors driving the trend toward urbanization worldwide, the challenges posed by this trend, and the efforts by cities to become more sustainable.
Grading status: Letter grade.

ENEC 433. Wetland Hydrology. 3 Credits.

Study of wetland ecosystems with particular emphasis on hydrological functioning, the transition from terrestrial to aquatic systems, wetlands as filtration systems, and exchange between wetlands and other environments.
Grading status: Letter grade
Same as: MASC 433.

ENEC 441. Marine Physiological Ecology. 3 Credits.

This course introduces students to the physiological, morphological, and behavioral factors employed by marine organisms to cope with their physical environment. Emphasis will be placed on the response of marine organisms to environmental factors such as seawater temperature, light, water salinity, ocean acidification, etc.
Grading status: Letter grade
Same as: MASC 441.

ENEC 444. Marine Phytoplankton. 3 Credits.

Permission of the instructor. For junior and senior science majors or graduate students. Biology of marine photosynthetic protists and cyanobacteria. Phytoplankton evolution, biodiversity, structure, function, biogeochemical cycles and genomics. Harmful algal blooms, commercial products, and climate change. Three lecture/practical session hours per week.
Grading status: Letter grade
Same as: MASC 444, BIOL 456.

ENEC 448. Coastal and Estuarine Ecology. 4 Credits.

A field-intensive study of the ecology of marine organisms and their interactions with their environment, including commercially important organisms. Laboratory/recitation/field work is included and contributes two credit hours to the course.
Requisites: Prerequisites, CHEM 102 and MATH 231.
Grading status: Letter grade
Same as: MASC 448.

ENEC 450. Biogeochemical Processes. 4 Credits.

Principles of chemistry, biology, and geology are applied to analysis of the fate and transport of materials in environmental systems, with an emphasis on those materials that form the most significant cycles. Three lecture hours and one laboratory hour a week.
Requisites: Prerequisites, MATH 231, and PHYS 114 or 118; permission of the instructor for students lacking the prerequisites.
Gen Ed: PL.
Grading status: Letter grade
Same as: GEOL 450, MASC 450.

ENEC 451. Population, Development, and the Environment. 3 Credits.

Introduction to contemporary and historical changes in human population, international development, and the global environment and how these processes interact, drawing on population geography as an organizing framework. Previously offered as GEOG 450.
Gen Ed: GL.
Grading status: Letter grade
Same as: GEOG 451.

ENEC 459. Ecological Anthropology. 3 Credits.

Examines how human-environmental adaptations shape the economic, social, and cultural lives of hunter-gatherers, pastoralists and agriculturalists. Approaches include optimal foraging theory, political ecology and subsistence risk.
Gen Ed: SS.
Grading status: Letter grade
Same as: ANTH 459.

ENEC 460. Historical Ecology. 3 Credits.

Historical ecology is a framework for integrating physical, biological, and social science data with insights from the humanities to understand the reciprocal relationship between human activity and the Earth system.
Gen Ed: HS, GL.
Grading status: Letter grade
Same as: ANTH 460.

ENEC 461. Fundamentals of Ecology. 4 Credits.

Students will develop a comprehensive understanding of the field of ecology, including modern and emerging trends in ecology. They will develop literacy in the fundamental theories and models that capture ecological processes; emphasis will also be placed on the relevance of ecology and ecological research for human society.
Requisites: Prerequisite, BIOL 201.
Grading status: Letter grade
Same as: BIOL 461.

ENEC 462. Ecosystem Management. 3 Credits.

Explores the ecological concepts underlying ecosystem management (e.g., genetic and species diversity, stability, resilience, landscape ecology, etc.), the tools used in the approach, and case studies of how communities are implementing ecosystem management.
Requisites: Prerequisite, BIOL 101.
Grading status: Letter grade.

ENEC 463. Business and the Environment. 3 Credits.

This course explores the intersection of business/economic growth and the major sustainability issues affecting the environment and societal well-being and raises questions about business ethics and the moral responsibility of business leaders, consumers, and citizens. Previously offered as ENEC 306. Honors version available
Gen Ed: PH, CI.
Grading status: Letter grade
Same as: BUSI 463.

ENEC 468. Advanced Functions of Temporal GIS. 3 Credits.

Required preparation, a multivariate calculus course like MATH 233. Overview of geographical information systems (GIS) using the Arc GIS software, and introduction to advanced geostatistical functions for temporal GIS describing environmental and health phenomena distributed across space and time. Application to the spatiotemporal mapping of environmental water quality.
Grading status: Letter grade
Same as: ENVR 468.

ENEC 470. Environmental Risk Assessment. 3 Credits.

Required preparation, one course in probability and statistics. Use of mathematical models and computer simulation tools to estimate the human health impacts of exposure to environmental pollutants. Three lecture hours per week.
Grading status: Letter grade
Same as: ENVR 470.

ENEC 471. Human Impacts on Estuarine Ecosystems. 4 Credits.

A cohesive examination of the human impacts on biological processes in estuarine ecosystems. Laboratory/recitation/field work is included and contributes two credit hours to the course.
Requisites: Prerequisites, CHEM 102 and MATH 231.
Grading status: Letter grade
Same as: MASC 471.

ENEC 474. Sustainable Coastal Management. 3 Credits.

This course explores the environmental history of the Albemarle estuary and its larger watershed and explores ways in which humans can utilize this region in a more sustainable manner.
Grading status: Letter grade.

ENEC 475. The Political Economy of Food. 3 Credits.

This course examines the political and economic dimensions of the food we eat, how it is produced, who eats what, and related social and environmental issues, both domestic and international, affecting the production, pricing, trade, distribution, and consumption of food.
Gen Ed: SS, GL.
Grading status: Letter grade
Same as: PLCY 475.

ENEC 479. Landscape Analysis. 3 Credits.

This course utilizes GIS, GPS, and remote sensing technologies to gather data on geology, watersheds, soils, integrated moisture indices. The class also develops habitat maps and derives species diversity indices.
Gen Ed: EE-Field Work.
Grading status: Letter grade.

ENEC 480. Environmental Decision Making. 3 Credits.

Introduces factors shaping environmental decision making by individuals, businesses, governments, advocacy groups, and international institutions. Explores public policy incentives and action strategies for influencing them.
Gen Ed: SS, NA.
Grading status: Letter grade
Same as: PLCY 480.

ENEC 481. Energy Economics. 3 Credits.

This course develops a core set of principles to understand and evaluate energy markets, policies, and regulations. Topics include oil markets, electric vehicles and CAFÉ standards, pollution permit markets and C02 regulations, and electricity markets.
Requisites: Prerequisite, ECON 101.
Gen Ed: SS.
Grading status: Letter grade.

ENEC 482. Energy and the Environment: A Coastal Perspective. 3 Credits.

Explores coastal and offshore energy issues, including energy demand, present-day and innovative sources of energy to meet that demand, economics, policy, and environmental and human health outcomes of different energy sources. Summer session only; online and field trip hybrid course, with a mandatory 8-day field site component on the Outer Banks. Housing and field activities arranged by the instructor, which will carry a fee.
Gen Ed: EE-Field Work.
Grading status: Letter grade.

ENEC 485. Coastal Resource Economics and Policy. 3-4 Credits.

This course develops and applies core principles essential to understanding and evaluating coastal environmental policy and renewable resource use. The principles include the economics of pollution, public choice, information and cost-benefit analysis, property rights, incentive-based regulation, and the economics of renewable resources. Includes insights from politics and ethics.
Requisites: Prerequisite, ECON 101.
Grading status: Letter grade.

ENEC 489. Ecological Processes in Environmental Systems. 4 Credits.

Principles of analysis of the structure and function of ecosystems are applied to environmental phenomena. The link between the biosphere and other environmental compartments is explored through case studies of environmental issues. Three lecture hours and one laboratory hour a week.
Requisites: Prerequisites, BIOL 101 or 201, CHEM 102, MATH 231, PHYS 115 or 119; permission of the instructor for students lacking the prerequisites.
Grading status: Letter grade.

ENEC 490. Special Topics in Environmental Science and Studies. 1-12 Credits.

Advanced topics from diverse areas of environmental science and/or environmental studies are explored. Honors version available
Repeat rules: May be repeated for credit; may be repeated in the same term for different topics; 12 total credits. 4 total completions.
Grading status: Letter grade.

ENEC 491. Effective Environmental Communication. 3 Credits.

Combines theory and application to explore effective communication in various environmental contexts and professions. Offers students from diverse disciplines tools to effectively and credibly communicate about environmental topics using a spectrum of strategies, and offers methods for effective thinking, writing, and speaking.
Gen Ed: CI.
Grading status: Letter grade.

ENEC 492. Social Science Research Methods. 3 Credits.

Students learn quantitative, qualitative, and mixed methods research skills and their application to public policies and management of natural resources.
Gen Ed: SS, EE-Mentored Research.
Grading status: Letter grade.

ENEC 493. Environmental Internship. 1-4 Credits.

Permission of the instructor. This course provides an internship with an organization related to environmental sciences or studies. Pass/Fail only.
Gen Ed: EE-Academic Internship.
Repeat rules: May be repeated for credit. 6 total credits. 2 total completions.
Grading status: Pass/Fail.

ENEC 510. Policy Analysis of Global Climate Change. 3 Credits.

Provides a real-world and relevant case study in which to apply material from multiple disciplines including public policy, economics, environmental science, and international studies. Teaches techniques for building policy models not covered elsewhere.
Gen Ed: SS, GL.
Grading status: Letter grade.

ENEC 511. Stable Isotopes in the Environment. 3 Credits.

Introduction to the theory, methods, and applications of stable isotopes to environmental problems. Primary focus will be on the origin, natural abundance, and fractionation of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen isotopes.
Requisites: Prerequisite, CHEM 102.
Grading status: Letter grade
Same as: GEOL 511.

ENEC 520. Environment and Development. 3 Credits.

Reviews environmental problems in developing countries. Analyzes proposed solutions, such as legal remedies, market instruments, corporate voluntary approaches, international agreements, and development policies. Discusses the link between trade and environment, environmental cases from the World Trade Organization, and sustainable development.
Gen Ed: SS, GL.
Grading status: Letter grade
Same as: PLCY 520.

ENEC 522. Environmental Change and Human Health. 3 Credits.

The course will provide students with a multidisciplinary perspective of environmental changes to encompass both human health and ecological health.
Requisites: Prerequisite, ENEC 201 or 202.
Grading status: Letter grade
Same as: ENVR 522.

ENEC 530. Principles of Climate Modeling. 3 Credits.

Recommended preparation, MATH 383. Develops explanatory and predictive models of the earth's climate. The level is introductory and the emphasis is on modeling past climate with the hope of understanding its future.
Requisites: Prerequisites, MATH 231, 232, and 233; PHYS 118 and 119.
Grading status: Letter grade.

ENEC 547. Energy, Transportation, and Land Use. 3 Credits.

This course explores the reciprocal connections between energy (production/conversion, distribution, and use), land use, environment, and transportation. Evaluation of federal, state, and local policies on energy conservation and alternative energy sources are emphasized. Students gain skills to analyze impacts, interdependencies, and uncertainties of various energy conservation measures and production technologies.
Grading status: Letter grade
Same as: PLAN 547.

ENEC 562. Statistics for Environmental Scientists. 4 Credits.

Introduction to the application of quantitative and statistical methods in environmental science, including environmental monitoring, assessment, threshold exceedance, risk assessment, and environmental decision making.
Requisites: Prerequisite, STOR 155.
Grading status: Letter grade
Same as: BIOL 562.

ENEC 563. Statistical Analysis in Ecology and Evolution. 4 Credits.

Application of modern statistical analysis and data modeling in ecological and evolutionary research. Emphasis is on computer-intensive methods and model-based approaches. Familiarity with standard parametic statistics is assumed.
Requisites: Prerequisites, MATH 231 and STOR 151; Permission of the instructor for students lacking the prerequisites.
Grading status: Letter grade
Same as: BIOL 563.

ENEC 565. Environmental Storytelling. 3 Credits.

An interdisciplinary course for students interested in environmental issues or journalism to produce stories about environmental issues that matter to North Carolinians. Students learn to identify credible sources, manage substantial amounts of information, and find story focus as they report on technical and often controversial subjects in a variety of media.
Grading status: Letter grade
Same as: MEJO 565.

ENEC 567. Ecological Analyses and Application. 3 Credits.

This course provides an overview of natural and social science approaches to addressing biodiversity conservation and resource management. Concepts and methods from population biology, evolutionary ecology, community ecology, and conservation biology will be complemented with approaches from common property theory, indigenous resource management, and human evolutionary ecology.
Grading status: Letter grade.

ENEC 569. Current Issues in Ecology. 3 Credits.

Required preparation, previous course work in ecology. Permission of the instructor. Topics vary but focus on interdisciplinary problems facing humans and/or the environment. May be repeated for credit.
Repeat rules: May be repeated for credit. 6 total credits. 2 total completions.
Grading status: Letter grade.

ENEC 580. Environmental Markets: Science and Economics. 3 Credits.

Examines the interplay of science and economics in the design of environmental markets. The first part introduces the principles of environmental economics. The second part considers several case studies that illustrate the critical role that scientific models of natural systems play in the design of environmental markets.
Grading status: Letter grade.

ENEC 581. Water Resource Planning and Policy Analysis. 3 Credits.

Water resources demand-supply relationships, United States water resource and related water quality policy, legal structure for water allocation, planning, project and program evaluation, and pricing. Strategies for coping with floods, droughts, and climate change will be explored. Extensive use of case studies.
Grading status: Letter grade.

ENEC 585. American Environmental Policy. 3 Credits.

Intensive introduction to environmental management and policy, including environmental and health risks; policy institutions, processes, and instruments; policy analysis; and major elements of American environmental policy. Lectures and case studies. Three lecture hours per week.
Gen Ed: HS, NA.
Grading status: Letter grade
Same as: ENVR 585, PLAN 585, PLCY 585.

ENEC 586. Water Quality Policies and Planning. 3 Credits.

Introduction to the management of water quality at the local and basinwide scales. Topics include theory and management frameworks; state and federal statutes and programs; water contaminants, their fate and transport; alternatives for improving and protecting water quality; and the technologies and management practices of selected basinwide comprehensive strategies.
Requisites: Prerequisites, BIOL 101 and MATH 231.
Grading status: Letter grade.

ENEC 593. Environmental Practicum. 1-3 Credits.

Permission of the instructor required. Students receive service-learning credit through active participation in a community, campus, or other approved group project.
Gen Ed: EE-Academic Internship.
Repeat rules: May be repeated for credit. 6 total credits. 2 total completions.
Grading status: Letter grade.

ENEC 602. Professional Development Skills for Ecologists and Biologists. 3 Credits.

The goal of this course is to help students who intend to become professional ecologists or biologists acquire critical skills and strategies needed for achieving their career goals.
Grading status: Letter grade
Same as: BIOL 602.

ENEC 608. Continuum Mechanics in the Earth Sciences. 3 Credits.

Required preparation, introductory geology course numbered below GEOL 202, except first-year seminar, or permission of the instructor. Applications of continuum mechanics in the earth sciences, including stress, strain, elasticity, and viscous flow. Numerical solutions to problems in heterogeneous finite strain including finite element analysis.
Requisites: Prerequisites, MATH 231; PHYS 114 or 118.
Grading status: Letter grade
Same as: GEOL 608.

ENEC 641. Ecology and Land Use Planning. 3 Credits.

Integration of the structure, function, and change of ecosystems with a land use planning framework. How land use planning accommodates human use and occupancy within ecological limits to sustain long-term natural system integrity.
Grading status: Letter grade
Same as: PLAN 641.

ENEC 669. Seminar in Ecology. 1-3 Credits.

May be repeated for credit.
Requisites: Prerequisite, BIOL 201; permission of the instructor for students lacking the prerequisite.
Repeat rules: May be repeated for credit; may be repeated in the same term for different topics; 12 total credits. 12 total completions.
Grading status: Letter grade
Same as: BIOL 669.

ENEC 675. Environmental Communication and the Public Sphere. 3 Credits.

Examines communication practices that accompany citizen participation in environmental decisions, including public education campaigns of nonprofit organizations, "risk communication," media representations, and mediation in environmental disputes.
Grading status: Letter grade.

ENEC 685. Environmental and Resource Economics. 3 Credits.

Theory and methods of environmental economics. Topics covered include cost-benefit analysis and environmental policy analysis, economic concept of sustainability, optimal use of natural resources, nonmarket valuation, and economic instruments.
Requisites: Prerequisite, ECON 310.
Grading status: Letter grade.

ENEC 686. Policy Instruments for Environmental Management. 3 Credits.

Design of public policy instruments as incentives for sustainable management of environmental resources and ecosystems, and comparison of the effects and effectiveness of alternative policies.
Requisites: Prerequisite, ECON 410 or PLAN 710.
Gen Ed: SS.
Grading status: Letter grade
Same as: PLCY 686, ENVR 686, PLAN 686.

ENEC 693H. Honors Research in Environmental Sciences and Studies. 3 Credits.

Permission of the director of undergraduate studies. First of two course sequence leading to the honors designation.
Gen Ed: EE-Mentored Research.
Grading status: Letter grade.

ENEC 694H. Honors Project in Environmental Sciences and Studies. 3 Credits.

Permission of the director of undergraduate studies. Independent project leading to the honors designation. Includes weekly research seminar.
Gen Ed: EE-Mentored Research.
Grading status: Letter grade.

ENEC 698. Capstone: Analysis and Solution of Environmental Problems. 3 Credits.

Interdisciplinary, team-based analyses of environmental phenomena are performed and applied to problems of the selection of effective environmental strategies. Students may select from a wide range of examples and venues.
Gen Ed: EE-Mentored Research.
Grading status: Letter grade.

Graduate-level Courses

ENEC 710. Advanced Coastal Environmental Change. 3 Credits.

Focuses on biological-physical couplings that shape coastal environments (i.e. coastal 'ecomorphodynamics') and determine how these environments change with climate and land use. Environments include: barrier islands, open ocean coastlines, and tidal wetlands. Grading based on presentations, participation, and a research proposal.
Requisites: Prerequisites, GEOL 417, 502, or 503; permission of the instructor for students lacking the prerequisites.
Same as: GEOL 710, MASC 730.

ENEC 765. Field Experience in Ecology. 2 Credits.

Graduate standing in ecology required. Organized field work in remote environments with a faculty instructor as approved by student's supervisory committee. May be repeated for credit.
Repeat rules: May be repeated for credit.

ENEC 891. Special Topics in Ecology. 2-4 Credits.

Permission of the instructor. May be repeated for credit.
Repeat rules: May be repeated for credit.

ENEC 961. Research in Ecology. 1-15 Credits.

Acquaints early career graduate students with research techniques and assesses their propensity for research. Arranged by mutual agreement of the student and faculty member.

ENEC 992. Master's (Non-Thesis). 3 Credits.

ENEC 993. Master's Research and Thesis. 3 Credits.

ENEC 994. Doctoral Research and Dissertation. 3 Credits.